SLA Theories-Chapter 6


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SLA Theories-Chapter 6

  1. 1. Analyzing Theories of Second Language Acquisition Input from: E. Platt, M. Beatriz-Mendoza, & T. Lucas Designed by: J. Govoni @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  2. 2. @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC Source:
  3. 3. Key Points:  When learners interact with others they negotiate meaning and in the process of clarifying, simplifying, repeating, and using modifications in interactions, new forms are learned. Language acquisition occurs when a learner notices the form and consciously or unconsciously puts it to use. Acquisition is not taught or learned; it emerges as a learner incorporates innate linguistic principles (Krashen, Long). Children acquire language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. Language Learning is when the learner notes form and consciously puts it to use. the result of direct instruction in the rules of language @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  4. 4. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Source: @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  5. 5. Piaget’s Stages of Development Source: @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  6. 6. YouTube: Piaget’s Developmental Theory: An Overview Piaget Source: @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  7. 7.  Culture is the primary determinant of cognitive development. Source: html?filters[term]=vygotsky&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=1 Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  8. 8. Input View: Language is an ‘in-the-head’ phenomenon, and its system of forms is innate and rule-governed. Krashen’s input stage (i +1): messages must be comprehensible and slightly more complex than that of a speaker’s current linguistic knowledge. Interaction View: View entails a ‘between-heads’ approach. Acquisition takes place during interaction. When learners interact they negotiate meaning and in the process, new forms are learned. Input and Interaction Views @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  9. 9. The distance between the actual developmental le as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky, 1978, p86). ZPD represents what the teacher does WITH the learner. Zone of Proximal Development ZPD @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  10. 10. Zone of Proximal Development Source: Vygotsky @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  11. 11. Piagetian View: • Did not take into account that across cultures children are exposed to a wide range of formative experiences. • Stages of development do not occur in the same way for all children. • Schooling provides the platform for development of formal operations. • By adolescent the developmental process is complete. Vygotskian View: • Acknowledged these experiences across cultures. • Emphasizes social interaction but places less emphasis on stages of behavior. • Cognitive development occurs within a social context. • Adults still perform challenging tasks as they become self-regulated. A comparison @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  12. 12. Krashen’s (i+1) represents what the teacher does FOR the learner. You Tube: Stephen Krashen-Comprehensible Input @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  13. 13. Four concepts:  Mediation  Internalization  Regulation  Intersubjectivity Sociocultural Theory (SCT) @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  14. 14. Mediation: learning and development depend on how objects and others in the environment negotiate through, or mediate, their experiences. For ELs to become proficient in English, it requires more than just learning linguistic forms and functions. Internalization: looks toward the social environment of learning and the mental representations formed in a learner’s social environment. As young children interact with their parents or older siblings, their interaction provides a scaffolding to assist toward functioning more independently. @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  15. 15. In the classroom, ELs strategize to create meaning mediated within a context where their linguistic and cognitive skills come together through communication and dialogues. The classroom is where these processes occur and influence learners’ sense of self as unique cultural beings. ELs are self-regulated when they no longer require assistance and are able to perform a task independently. Educators should be able to recognize their role as mediators of experience for all students. Teachers are able to establish intersubjectivity with ELs by understanding their cultural backgrounds, linguistic skills, and learning styles. @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC
  16. 16. @ESOLinHigherEd. LLC