When learners interact with others they negotiate meaning
and in the process of clarifying, simplifying, repeating, and using
modifications in interactions, new forms are learned.
Language acquisition occurs when a learner notices the form and
consciously or unconsciously puts it to use.
Acquisition is not taught or learned; it emerges as a learner
incorporates innate linguistic principles (Krashen, Long).
Children acquire language through a subconscious process during
which they are unaware of grammatical rules.
Language Learning is when the learner notes form and
consciously puts it to use. the result of direct instruction in
the rules of language
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Culture is the primary determinant of
Lev S. Vygotsky (1896-1934)
Language is an ‘in-the-head’ phenomenon, and its system of forms
is innate and rule-governed.
Krashen’s input stage (i +1): messages must be
comprehensible and slightly more complex than that of a speaker’s
current linguistic knowledge.
View entails a ‘between-heads’ approach.
Acquisition takes place during interaction. When learners interact they
negotiate meaning and in the process, new forms are learned.
Input and Interaction Views
The distance between the actual developmental le
as determined by independent problem solving and
the level of potential development as determined
through problem solving under adult guidance, or
in collaboration with more capable peers
(Vygotsky, 1978, p86).
ZPD represents what the teacher does WITH the learner.
Zone of Proximal Development
Zone of Proximal Development
Did not take into account that
across cultures children are
exposed to a wide range of
Stages of development do not
occur in the same way for all
Schooling provides the
platform for development of
By adolescent the
developmental process is
experiences across cultures.
Emphasizes social interaction
but places less emphasis on
stages of behavior.
occurs within a social
Adults still perform
challenging tasks as they
Krashen’s (i+1) represents
what the teacher does FOR
You Tube: Stephen Krashen-Comprehensible Input
Sociocultural Theory (SCT)
Mediation: learning and development depend on how
objects and others in the environment negotiate
through, or mediate, their experiences.
For ELs to become proficient in English, it requires more
than just learning linguistic forms and functions.
Internalization: looks toward the social environment of learning
and the mental representations formed in a
learner’s social environment.
As young children interact with their parents or older siblings,
their interaction provides a scaffolding to assist toward
functioning more independently.
In the classroom, ELs strategize to create meaning mediated
within a context where their linguistic and cognitive skills come
together through communication and dialogues.
The classroom is where these processes occur and influence
learners’ sense of self as unique cultural beings.
ELs are self-regulated when they no longer require assistance
and are able to perform a task independently.
Educators should be able to recognize their role as mediators of
experience for all students.
Teachers are able to establish intersubjectivity with ELs by
understanding their cultural backgrounds, linguistic skills, and