Backward flow of the stomach or duodenal contents into the
esophagus, may occur normally or as a chronic pathologic condition.
• Reflux of gastric contents in to the esophagus occurs occasionally
in healthy individuals and some even experience classic heartburn
• However, about 7% to 8% of the population experience daily
heartburn resulting from frequent reflux of gastric and sometimes
duodenal contents into the esophagus.
• The prevalence of esophageal reflux varies with the description of
the symptoms, but about 20% to 40% of adults report symptoms of
GERD at least one time per week.
GERD may develop due to any of the following reasons.
• Decreased muscle tone or abnormal relaxation of LES.
• Reduce stomach motility allowing food to remain too long in the
• Hiatus hernia.
• Bleeding, esophageal erosions and ulcerations, stricture of the
• Barrett’s esophagus
• Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
• To prevent esophageal reflux.
• To prevent pain and irritation of the inflamed esophageal mucosa.
• To decrease the erosive capacity of gastric secretions.
• Nutritional requirements remains the same as per the RDI for most
patients, may change during certain complications such as in
bleeding, its necessary to increase intake of dietary proteins, iron, B-
group vitamins & vitamin C.
• GERD has usually developed due to obesity that’s why it is essential
to prescribe a weight reduction diet for a patient.
• Eat your meal 2-3 hours before bedtime as shortly after having meal
acid availability in stomach increases.
• Avoid eating specific foods that have been identified as potentially
aggravating factors in some patients include raw onions, chocolate,
caffeine, peppermint, citrus juices, alcoholic beverages, tomato
products and spicy foods.
• Large meals and desserts that are high in fat or caloric density
stimulate significant amount of gastric secretion and slow gastric
emptying, so its advisable to avoid high fat high calorie meals.