Dermatoglyphics in pulmonary tuberculosis


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Dermatoglyphics in pulmonary tuberculosis

  1. 1. Palmar Dermatoglyphics In Pulmonary TuberculosisSangita S Babu, B.P. Powar, O.N. KhareR.D. Gardi Medical College Ujjain (MP) Abstract: Studies were conducted in 100 patients of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and various dermatoglyphics param-eters such as ‘atd angle, finger print pattern, absolute finger ridge count and total finger ridge count were calculated.These parameters of study group were compared to those of controls. It was observed that the whorl pattern (56.6%) werepre-dominant with a decrease in loop pattern (32.1%) when compared those of controls and the difference was highlysignificant (P< 0.01). The difference in the mean total finger ridge count of the controls and study group was found to behighly significant (P< 0.02) ; while the difference in mean absolute finger ridge count of the controls and of the patients ofpulmonary tuberculosis was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). The ‘atd angle had narrowed in the study groupwhen compared to controls and the difference was highly significant (P<0.02). Key Words : Palmar prints, tuberculosis, dermatoglyphics, axial triradius.Introduction (56.6%) were pre-dominant in the study group when Dermatoglyphics is the study of surface markings compared to controls (23.8% ) which was highlyof the skins, especially of the palmar and plantar significant (P<0.02) while the study group showed aregions. The study of dermatoglyphics was pioneered decrease in loop pattern (32.1%) while in controls it islong back by Galton (1892) and it is a simple yet (73.3%) and the difference is highly significantcomplicated tool in the study of genetic disorders. The (P<0.01). The arches were very much reduced in thestudy of palmar pattern is done especially it provides study group (3.3%) while in the normal population wasa better in sight in to the study of the disease under found to be (11.3%). But these differences wereconsideration. statistically in significant (P>0.05) Tuberculosis, an infectious disease caused by On considering the occurrence of the patterns inmycobacterium tuberculi is a world wide public health both the palms, the ring finger is having maximumproblem. The purpose of studying dermatoglyphics is percentage of whorls (90%). Thus it can be assumedto derive a diagnostic criteria from the dermatoglyphic that the most common pattern in pulmonarypoint of view. tuberculosis patients is whorls in their ring finger. (refer Table 1)Materials And Methods TFRC: Total finger ridge counts is the number of In the present study 100 patients of pulmonary ridges from the triradius to the core pattern, and istuberculosis (sputum +ve) were collected from the counted for all the digits of both hands.department of TB & Chest. R.D. Gardi Medical College, According to the study of TFRC in normals it wasUjjain. Diagnosis of the patients were based on their found to be 99.8 + 6.18 and in TB patients 112.4+detailed history, clinical examination, chest X-ray and 7.36. The mean TFRC is higher in study group and onconfirmed by sputum test. They were matched with statistical analysis the difference was found to be highly100 healthy subjects, those who are residing in the significant (P<0.02) .( refer Table 2)same locality and having no family history of AFRC: Absolute finger ridge counts is the ridgetuberculosis or any other inheritable disease. Finger counting on the tip of all digits of both hands from allprints and palm prints were taken with the help of the triradi present. Because a whorl is having 2 triradiprinters ink on white paper by ‘ink & paper’ method. there will be 2 counts in whorls. On considering ridgeAfter that these prints were studied for the pattern counts the ridge count of a whorl is between 11 to 15.types, total finger ridge count (TFRC), absolute finger The AFRC was calculated in both the normals andridge count (AFRC) and ‘atd’ angle with the help of a study group and the value in the normals is 122 + 18.9hand lens. Student ‘t’ test was applied for statistical while in TB patients it is 180+ 50.6. The differencesanalysis of the results. were found to be highly significant (P<0.05).(refer Table 3)Observations ‘atd’ angle :- It is the angle found by the axial triradius The finger print pattern of the pulmonary which is situated near the base of 5th metacarpal andtuberculosis patients were compared with that of the digital triradi (4 found near the distal border of thecontrols. The results obtained were like this: The whorls palm)J.Anat.Soc. India 54 (2) 1-9 (2005) 64
  2. 2. Table 1 : Comparison of finger print patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis & controls ( in % ) Group Patterns Digits I II III IV V All Digits Controls N= 100 Whorls 20 21 39 20 19 23.8 Loops 74.5 77 59.5 78.5 77 73.3 Arches 5.5 2 1.5 1.5 6 3.3 T B Patients N=100 Whorls 61 39.5 52.5 90 40 56.6 Loops 36.5 40.5 27.5 7 49 32.1 Arches 2.5 20 20 3 11 11.3N-NumberTable 2 : Statistical evaluationof mean T F R C + S D in controls & T B PatientsStudy groupcategory Study group Mean + S D Controls Mean + S D ‘t’ P valuePulmonarytuberculosis 112.4 + 7.36 99.8 + 6.18 2.93 **P <0.02TFRC- Total Finger Ridge Count ‘t’ –student t test valueSD – Standard Deviation ** -Highly significantTable 3 : Statistical evaluation of mean A F R C in controls & T B PatientsStudy groupcategory Study group Mean + S D Controls Mean + S D ‘t’ P valuePulmonarytuberculosis 180 + 50.6 122 + 18.9 2.40 *P < 0.05AFRC- Absolute Finger Ridge Count ‘t’ –student t test valueSD – Standard Deviation * - significant‘atd’ angle in both the hands of the controls and study Binding Protein Gene (Selvaraj P, Narayanan PR andgroup were examined and it is observed that in normals Reetha A.M 1999). Significant association has been43.6 + 5.56 (in degrees) is mean atd angle and in found between IL – 1 Gene clusters and hoststudy group it is 38+ 3.77 the difference was found to susceptibility to tuberculosis (Bellamy R, Ruwende C,be highly significant (P<0.02).(refer Table 4) Corrah T , Mc Adam KP, Whittle HC and Hill A.V. 1998). Analysis of finger tip dermatoglyphics ofDiscussion : tuberculosis patients (Geetha Vishwanathan, Meghna The dermal ridge patterns are formed very early in Krishnan, Kalyani G.S – Journal of Ecobiology 14(3)the embryonic period of life; because of that they remain 205-210 (2002) has found 60.6% of whorl patterns,unchanged during a persons life and is affected by 36.4% loops and 3% arches in tuberculosis patients.certain abnormalities of early development (Walker In the present study whorls constituted for 56.6%1958). The genetic contribution is one of the causes of loops 32.1% and arch 11.3% for the study group. Thesepulmonary tuberculosis. Susceptibility to pulmonary observations can be an additional supports intuberculosis in India has been linked to Mannose diagnosis patients of pulmonary tuberculosis.Table 3 : Statistical evaluation of mean A F R C in controls & T B PatientsStudy groupcategory Study group Mean + S D Controls Mean + S D ‘t’ P valuePulmonarytuberculosis 38.0 + 3.77 43.6 + 5.56 2.64 **P<0.02SD – Standard Deviation ** -Highly significantt –student t test valueJ.Anat.Soc. India 54 (2) 1-9 (2005) 65
  3. 3. References : 6. Bellamy R, Ruwende C, Corrah T, Mc Adam K.P,1. Cummins H , Midlo C (1943) finger prints, Palms and Whittle H.C and Hill A.V. 1998 Tuberculosis Lung Soles: An introduction to Dermatoglyphics Disease 79 (2):83-9. Philadelphia Blackistan. 7. Lavebratt C, Apt A.S, Nikonenko BV, Schalling M and2. Galton F (1892) Finger Prints, London, Macmillan. Schurr E 1999. Severity of tuberculosis in mice linked3. Mutalik G.S, Lokhandwala VA ( 1968) Application of to distal chromosome 3 and proximal chromosome dermatoglyphical studies in medical diagnosis. 9. J. Infectious Disease. 180(1):150 – 5 Journal of Association of Physicians of India 16:925 8. Stedmans Medical Dictionary 1966. Baltmore –932. Calcutta. The Williams and Wilkins Company,4. Holt S.B (1968) The Genetics of Dermal Ridges. 1st Scientific Book Agency 21st ed. 429. ed. pp 12 – 14 New York: Charles C Thomas. 9. Editorial Pulmonary Tuberculosis of Bovine Origin5. Schauman B, Alter M (1976) Dermatoglyphics in J.A,M.A; 126:435, 1944. medical disorders 1st ed p7 New York Springer – 10. Fishberg M : Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 4th ed, Vols I & Verlag. II Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1932.J.Anat.Soc. India 54 (2) 1-9 (2005) 66