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Human Resource Management


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Project Human Resource Management, Project Human Resource Management Processes,Plan Human Resource Management – T & T.

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Human Resource Management

  1. 1. 1 Project Human Resource Management Saraca Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Best PMP Exam Simulator
  2. 2. • Project human resources management includes the processes that organize, manage and lead the project team • Specific roles and responsibilities are assigned to the project team, the involvement of all team members in planning and decision making is beneficial • Is a process of (a) identifying and documenting roles and responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationship and (b) creating the staffing management plan 2 9.1 Plan Human Resource Management Best PMP Exam Simulator
  3. 3. Project Human Resource Management Processes 3 Start Project / Enter Phase Initiating Planning Executing Closing End Project / Exit Phase Monitoring and Control Process Process Groups Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing Plan Human Resource Management Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Best PMP Exam Simulator
  4. 4. Organizational charts and position descriptions • All team member have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibility • Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities Types of Formats:  Hierarchical e.g. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)  Matrix e.g. ResponsibilityAssignment Matrix (RAM) e.g. RACI (Responsible,Accountable, Consult and Inform)  Text -oriented 4 Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  5. 5. Plan Human Resource Management - Tools and Techniques 5 Role Definition Responsible Conducts the actual work/owns the problem. There should be at least one R (otherwise the work is not performed) and there can be multiple R’s (this is called team working) Accountable Approves the completed work and is held fully accountable for it. There should be one and only one A Consulted Has the information and/or capability to complete the work. Two-way communication (typically between R and C) – Optional Informed Is to be informed of progress and results. One-way communication (typically from R to I) - Optional Example of RACI Chart Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  6. 6. OrganizationalTheories 6 • Motivation is one of the most important factor to generate a team spirit and enhance the efficiency of individual as well as of team • It is also important to understand that team members do not get De-motivated Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  7. 7. Maslow’sTheory of Hierarchical Needs Maslow’s message is that people do not work for security or money.They work to contribute and to use their skills. He created a pyramid to show how people are motivated and said that one cannot ascend to the next level unless lower level needs are fulfilled 7 Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self Actualization Need for food, Housing, Clothing etc Security, Stability, and Freedom Love, Affection, Approval, Friend, Association Accomplishment, Respect, Attention, Appreciation Self fulfillment, Growth, Learning Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  8. 8. x 8 McGregor’sTheory X andTheoryY McGregor believes that managers view employees based on a group of assumptions & based on these assumptions, tend to mold their behavior toward employees - Theory X (Negative approach) – Managers who accepts this theory believe that people need to be watched every minute, people are incapable, avoid responsibility and avoid work whenever possible TheoryY (Positive approach) - Managers who accepts this theory believe that people are willing to work without supervision and want to achieve, people can direct their own efforts Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  9. 9. Hertzberg’sTwo FactorTheory Poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation but improving them under most circumstances will not improve motivation Hygiene factors only are not sufficient to motivate people but motivator factors are also required Herzberg’s two-factor principles Influence by Hygiene Factors Improving motivator factors increases job satisfaction Influence by Motivator Factors •Working condition •Coworker relations •Policies & rules •Supervisor quality Improving the hygiene factors decreases job dissatisfaction •Achievements •Recognition •Responsibility •Work itself •Personal growth 9 Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  10. 10. • Role • Authority • Responsibility • Competency • Project Organizational Chart • Staffing Management Plan  StaffAcquisition  Resource Calendar  Staff Release Plan  Training needs  Recognition and Rewards  Compliance, Safety Human Resource Management Plan 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Resource Histogram Week 11 Week 10 Week 9 Week 8 Week 7 Week 6 Week 5 Week 4 Week 3 Week 2 Week 1 Plan Human Resource Management –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  11. 11. 9.2 Acquire Project Team The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities 11 9.2 Acquire ProjectTeam Best PMP Exam Simulator
  12. 12. • Are groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face Communication technology used for interaction: • E-mail, audio conferencing, web-based meetings and video conferencing Virtual team model makes it possible to: • Form teams of people from the same company who live in widespread geographical areas • Special expertise can work from remote areas • Team members can work from homes • Team members who work different shifts or hours • People with mobility limitations or disabilities • Move forward with projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses 12 VirtualTeams Acquire ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  13. 13. 13 VirtualTeams Important mode of interaction: • Communication planning Additional time would be required: • to set clear expectations • facilitate communications • develop protocols for resolving conflict • include people in decision making • understand cultural differences • share credit in successes Acquire ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  14. 14. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: 14 • To acquire the project team, use of a multi-criteria decision analysis tool may be used • Selection criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members (please refer next slide) • Criteria’s are then weighted according to the relative importance of the needs within the team Acquire ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  15. 15. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: 15 Examples of selection criteria used to score team members – 1. Availability: Check for the team members availability to work on the project within the time period needed 2. Cost:Verify if the cost of adding the team members is within the budget 3. Experience:Verify that the team member has relevant experience to contribute to the success of the project 4. Ability:Verify that the team member has the required competency needed to work on the project 5. Knowledge: Consider if the team member has relevant knowledge of the customer, similar implemented projects and nuances of the project environment 6. Skills: Ensure that the team members has the relevant skills to use a project tool, implementation or training 7. Attitude: Determine if the team member has the ability to work in a team 8. International factors:Consider team member location, time zone and communication capabilities Acquire ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  16. 16. The process of improving the competencies, team interactions, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance 16 9.3 Develop ProjectTeam Best PMP Exam Simulator
  17. 17. 17 Objectives of developing a project team: • Improving knowledge and skills of team members to increase their ability to complete project deliverables, while lowering costs, reducing schedule delays and improving quality • Improving feelings of trust and agreement among team members to raise morale, lower conflict and increase team work • Creating a dynamic, cohesive, and collaborative team culture to  improve individual and team productivity, team spirit and cooperation  allow cross training and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise Develop ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  18. 18. 18 Interpersonal Skills • Sometimes known as‘soft skills’ • Skills such as emotional intelligence, conflict resolution, negotiation, influence, team building and group facilitation are valuable assets when developing a project team Team Building Activities • Encouraging various formal, informal communication and activities based on the individual’s roles builds trust and establishes good working relationships • In virtual teams this is a very important activity Develop ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  19. 19. 19 • This phase is where the team meets and learns about the project and what their formal roles and responsibilities are.Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase. Forming • During this phase, the team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach. If team members are not collaborative and open to differing ideas and perspectives the environment can become destructive. Storming • In the norming phase, team members begin to work together and adjust work habits and behaviors that support the team.The team begins to trust each other.Norming • Teams that reach the performing stage function as a well-organized unit.They are interdependent and work through issues smoothly and effectively.Performing • In the adjourning phase, the team completes the work and moves on from the project.Adjourning Tuckman’s Ladder ofTeam Development Model Develop ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  20. 20. 20 Ground Rules • Establishing clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members • Early commitment to clear guidelines decrease misunderstandings and increase productivity Co-Location • Placing many or all of the most active team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team • Can be temporary such as at strategic important times during the project or for the entire project Develop ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  21. 21. 21 Team Performance Assessments • The performance of a successful team is measured in terms of technical success according to -  agreed-upon project objectives (including quality levels)  performance on project schedule (finished on time)  performance on budget (finished within financial constraints) The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness may include indicators - • Improvements in skills to perform assignments more effectively • Improvements in competencies to perform better as a team • Reduced staff turnover rate • Increased team cohesiveness to improve the overall project performance Develop ProjectTeam - Output Best PMP Exam Simulator
  22. 22. The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and managing team changes to optimize project performance 22 9.4 Manage ProjectTeam Best PMP Exam Simulator
  23. 23. 23 Conflict Management Positive Approach • Timely address & proper methodology, generally collaborative and in private • Result : Better inter relationship & improved efficiency Disciplinary Approach • Formal procedures may need to apply with strict actions • Cause : Conflict continues to disturb project work in spite of all formal positive approach Common Sources • Resources, Scheduling priorities, Individual working styles, etc. Proactive actions • Following Standard Project Management practices • Planning for clear roles and responsibilities • Communication practices • Ground rules etc. Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  24. 24. 24 Conflict Management – Conflict ResolvingTechniques Withdrawal/Avoid (Lose-Lose) • Postponing the issue to be better prepared or to be resolved by others • Retreating or withdrawing from an actual or potential disagreements • No direct solution directly possible Smooth/Accommodate (Lose-Lose) • Conceding one’s position to the needs of others to maintain harmony and relationship • De-emphasizing or avoiding areas of difference and emphasizing on areas of agreement • Partial solution & buy time Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  25. 25. 25 Compromising/Reconcile (Lose-Lose) • Both sides going back a step • Bargaining or searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to the parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict Forcing/Direct (Win-Lose) • Using formal power • Exerting one’s point at the potential expense of another Collaborate/Problem Solve/Confronting (Win-Win) • Incorporate multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives • Requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment Conflict Management – Conflict ResolvingTechniques Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  26. 26. 26 Arbitration • Both the party agree to a neutral third party and communicate their opinion • The decision of arbitrator is binding to both the party • Normally this method is used to avoid placing conflicts to the Court of Law Conflict Management – Conflict ResolvingTechniques Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  27. 27. 27 Types of Power Legitimate Power • Formal Power or Positional Power • Power comes from being formally in charge of the project and the people Reward power • Your ability to give award a bonus or another kind of reward in order to motivate team members Expert power • You are the subject matter expert • The team respects you for your expertise in a specific-area and gives you credibility because of that Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  28. 28. 28 Referent power • Means that people admire you, are loyal to you and want to do what you do because you are part of the cool crowd • You are standing in for someone who has more position or power in the company • Can also come when you ally with a powerful person Punishment/Coercive power • You correct a team member for poor behavior • Should be done on a one-to-one and in private Types of Power Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  29. 29. Leadership Styles Autocratic / Directing PM makes decision without soliciting information from team Bureaucratic / Persuading / Consultative Input is solicited from selected team members, but PM still sole decision maker Democratic / Participative / Consensus Consults team for open discussion and information gathering; uses help from team to come up with a decision Laissez – Faire / Delegating Team has ultimate authority on final decision, Hands- off Attitude 29 Manage ProjectTeam –T &T Best PMP Exam Simulator
  30. 30. 30 Thank you Best PMP Exam Simulator