A language is a system of communication which
consists of a set of sounds ,gesture and written
symbols which are used by the people of a
particular country or region for communication.
Receptive language is ability to
Expressive language is ability to
Reading and listening skills falls
into this categories
Speaking and writing skills falls
into this categories
First language skill to be
Developed after the receptive
The communication or expression of thoughts in spoken
words. Speech is human vocal communication using language.
Each language uses phonetic combinations of vowel and
consonant sounds that form the sound of its words
The way we produce sound in the words that we say using
our jaws, lips, tongue, teeth, vocal cords and air flow
Articulation: the ability to produce specific sound( i.e.
wabbit vs. rabbit)
Voice: the quality of the sound produced (pitch, tone and
Fluency: the smoothness and rhythm in our speech.
OLDEST LIVING LANGUAGE OF WORLD
TAMIL (5000 YEARS OLD)
Tamil is the Oldest Living Language of the World.
It is a language spoken by nearly 78 million people!
It is widely spoken in Sri Lanka, Singapore and India and is a part of the Dravidian language family.
It is also the official language of the state of Tamil Nadu
Egyptian – 2690 BC (4700 YEARS OLD)
be one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The ancient Egyptian language is attested in Egypt for
over four thousand years
Coptic was the most widely spoken language in Egypt till the late 17th century AD
it was gradually replaced by Arabic after the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 CE.
Sanskrit – 1500 BC (3500 years old)
the second oldest language in the world still being used today.
According to studies, Sanskrit forms the base for many European languages and is still one of
India's official languages.
Greek – 1450 BC ( 3500 years old)
Greek is a Hellenic language.
There are around 13 million native Greek speakers.
Greek has significantly influenced Western literature.
The longest Greek word contains 182 characters.
The word “alphabet” is actually formed of “alpha” and “beta”
The origin of
Language started around 150,000 years ago to meet
humans’ communicational needs. The origin of
language is under debate as evidence of languages
before writing is almost impossible to find.
the origin of all languages was the same, but they
slowly evolved and made thoroughly different entities
The origin of language was perhaps the need to
communicate. Maybe the initial words were only howls
and hoots, but eventually, they evolved to form a
systematic way of communication for humans.
THEORIES OF LANGUAGE EMERGENCE
THE BOW-WOW THEORY
THE DING-DONG THEORY
THE POOH-POOH THEORY
THE GESTURE THEROY
THE BOW-WOW THEORY
The bow-wow theory says that nature and especially nature sound
are the starting point of linguistic systems.
THE DING-DONG THEORY
The ding-dong theory also called nativistic theory
Assume that human name the sounds and names after sounds
produced by object around
“boom” for explosion
“crash” or thunder
THE POOH-POOH THEORY
Based on the evidence that speech arose through people making instinctive sounds
The automatic vocal responses
THE GESTURE THEORY
Human language developed from gestures that were used for communication
For example: deaf children learn to sign readily
Posture head motion facial expression eye contact gesture
Q:WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
Language is more than just communication, it is the primary method by which we do things
Language is the accumulation of shared meaning – of common ground
Language can de defined in three words:
Communication: One way communication message sent.
Conversation: Two way communication both parties feel understood.
Collaboration: Thinking , planning , making decisions.
Displacement refers to the ability to speak about things other than here or now.
Displacement is the most momentous between human language and the signaling system of all
the other species.
Humans can refer to past , present and future as well as to locations.
Animal communication is generally considered to lack this property.
The meaning of each individual word is arbitrariness.
Each word is formed according to the phonological system to of the language .
By the arbitrariness of the language we mean that there is no logical or inherit relation or
similarity between any given feature of the language and its meaning.
It is pervasive in human languages.
Due to this feature even the most advanced computers programme can decipher the words it
has not encountered before.
No constraints on topics
- We can talk about all kinds of new topics.
We constantly add to the language
- Object names: Fax , cellphone , compact disk
- Actions: skateboard , dumpster dive
- Novel combinations in sentences: The laboratory rat brought ripe
cheese to the party
A language user can manipulate his linguistic resources Open endedness.
4: Cultural Transmission
Cultural transmission: We acquire our language in a culture with other speakers . It includes our
accents and expressions.
It is passed on from one generation to the next .
We are born with the ability to acquire any language, but we learn our first language as a part of
Discreetness means human language consists of distinctive units , different pronunciations in
the sounds of human language leads to different meanings
BACK ------- PACK
PIN ------- BIN
HEAT -------- MEAT
FEAT ------- SEAT
Each sound in the language system is treated as linguistically specific and discreet sound.
- TWO LEVELS : Distinct sound and distinct meaning.
- Physical level at which we can produce different sounds e.g. n , b , i .
- meaning level at which we can produce sounds in combinations e.g. nib
This duality of structure , or double articulation of language enables its users to talk about
anything with in their knowledge
Parts of the brain
involved in speech and
BY SHANZAH KHATTAK
It is the largest part of the brain
It consist of right and left hemispheres.
The left hemisphere is dominant as it controls language and speech.
Each can be divided into regions called lobes that includes
The frontal and temporal lobes are primary involved in speech formation and understanding.
Broca’s area, also called convolution of Broca’s, is the region
of the brain that contains neurons involved in speech
function. It located in the front part of the left hemisphere of
your brain. It is also called main language centers of the brain.
It's involved in the production of speech and written
It has an important role in turning your ideas and thoughts
into actual verbal words.
It is linked with the processing and comprehension of
It is the region of the brain that
contains motor neurons involved
in the comprehension of speech.
It is in the posterior third of the
upper temporal convolution of
the left hemisphere of the brain.
It process words and words
sequences to determine context
It is responsible for
understanding of language.
Broca’s vs Wernicke’s
The key difference between Broca and Wernicke
area is that Broca area is part of the cerebral
cortex that helps to ensure that language is
produced in a fluent way, while Wernicke area is
part of the cerebral cortex that makes sure
language makes sense.
Broca area is associated with speech production
and articulation and Wernicke area is associated
with language comprehension.
The arcuate fasciculus is a band of nerves that
connects Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. It
helps you form words, speak clearly, and
understand concepts in language form.
Damage to the arcuate fasciculus impairs the
transmission of information between them.
The cerebellum is located at the back of your
brain. The cerebellum is involved in coordinating
voluntary muscle movements like opening and
closing your mouth, moving your arms and legs,
standing upright, and maintaining balance. It also
controls language processing.
It can identify and correct language mistakes
and writing skills.
It is in the frontal lobe of the brain.
To speak clearly, you must move the muscles of
your mouth, tongue and throat. This is where
the motor cortex comes into play.
the motor cortex takes information from Broca’s
area and tells the muscles of your face, mouth,
tongue, lips, and throat how to
move to form speech.
Difference between Speech and
Speech is the sound of spoken
language and includes the formation
of a sound, the nature of the sound
quality and the rhythm and flow of
the sound. Speech is making
the sound that become words.
Language is the words we use and
how we use them to share ideas and
get what we want. Language is our
system of using words to
communicate. It includes using
words and gestures to say what we
mean, and understanding what
Mechanism Of Speech
There are 3 mechanisms that are involved in producing speech.
Respiration at lungs
Phonation at larynx
Articulation in mouth
1. Respiration at the lungs
Anything that makes a sound needs a source of energy. For human speech sounds, the air flowing
from our lungs provides energy.
2.Phonation at larynx
The second is a source of the sound: air flowing from the lungs
arrives at the larynx. Put your hand on the front of your throat and
gently feel the bony part under your skin. That’s the front of your
larynx. It’s not actually made of bone; it’s cartilage and muscle
3.Articulation in mouth
The airflow from the lungs is then shaped by the articulators in the mouth and nose
(articulation). The main articulators are the tongue, the upper lip, the lower lip, the upper
teeth, the upper gum ridge.
Language and Environment
New study finds that a home environment that supports language
development in early childhood—across the first four years of life—
predicts children’s readiness to learn in pre-school, which in turn
predicts the children’s academic skills in fifth grade.
Language and Environment
Children acquire a language through his experience that they get from various environments, it
is called environmentalism. The more the exposure from environment, the better the acquisition
Specifically, children growing up in households with richer home language environments have
been shown to learn vocabulary faster, exhibit increased processing speed, and develop overall
stronger language and cognitive skills.
Language and Environment
Major finding indicates that a conducive environment created by the teacher helps students to
enhance their speaking skills. For elementary students to be fluent in speaking the target
language, the teacher needs to give them opportunities to talk about their own experiences.
A receptive language disorder is one in which a child struggles
to understand and process the messages and information
they receive from others. Some children have a mixed
receptive-expressive language disorder in which they have
symptoms of both types of disorders.
the child's exposure to language
general developmental and cognitive (thought and
understanding) abilities, may be involved.
Here are some common signs of receptive language
Tuning out when people talk.
Trouble following directions.
Trouble answering questions.
Asking people to repeat what they say.
Read picture books together and label the
items you see.
Play games with simple, predictable
directions, like Simon Says.
Play together, with toys your child chooses.
Practice looking at the speaker and resisting
expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child
has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, saying complex
sentences, and remembering words. However, a child with
this disorder may have the normal language skills needed to
understand verbal or written communication.
expressive language disorder is
common in school-age children. The
causes are not well understood.
Damage to the cerebrum of the
brain and malnutrition may cause
Genetic factors may also be
The common treatment for language disorder is speech and
language therapy. Treatment will depend on the age of your
child and the cause and extent of the condition. For example,
your child may participate in one-on-one treatment sessions
with a speech-language therapist or attend group sessions.
A speech and language delay is when a child isn't
developing speech and language at an expected rate. It's a
common developmental problem that affects as many as
10% of preschool children.
TYPES OF DELAY SPEECH DISORDER:
Apraxia (called "dyspraxia" if mild) is a neurological disorder
characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out
skilled movements and gestures, despite having the desire
and the physical ability to perform them.
Slower rate of speech, distortions of sounds
long pauses between syllables.
Stroke, traumatic head injury
tumor or surgical trauma.
For both children and adults, the treatment for AOS
involves speech-language therapy.
is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant
problems with normal fluency and flow of speech. People who
stutter know what they want to say but have difficulty saying it.
Difficulty starting a word, phrase or sentence
Prolonging a word or sounds within a word
Repetition of a sound, syllable or word.
Abnormalities in speech motor control
There is no known cure for stuttering, and like any other
it requires therapy
practice to treat or manage it
oDysarthria occurs when the muscles you use for speech are
weak or you have difficulty controlling them. Dysarthria often
causes slurred or slow speech that can be difficult to
oBrain injury, stroke
Treatments for dysarthria commonly include the voice exercises
which help modulate speech clarity and voice.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability
caused by differences in the brain. People with ASD often have
problems with social communication and interaction, and
restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with ASD
may also have different ways of learning, moving, or paying
Having a sibling with ASD.
Having certain genetic or chromosomal conditions,
such as fragile X syndrome or tuberous sclerosis.
Experiencing complications at birth.
Being born to older parents.
not responding to their name.
avoiding eye contact.
not smiling when you smile at them.
getting very upset if they do not like a certain taste,
smell or sound.
repetitive movements, such as flapping their hands,
flicking their fingers or rocking their body.
Behavioral management therapy.
Cognitive behavior therapy.
Educational and school-based therapies.
Joint attention therapy.
SSRIs for anxiety and antipsychotics if they are aggressive and self
These treat symptoms not autism itself.
They do not treat the social communication deficits.