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biological presentation.pptx

  1. Language speech and associated disorders PRESENTED BY GROUP 2
  2. Emergence and history BY HAREEM GUL
  3. LANGUAGE A language is a system of communication which consists of a set of sounds ,gesture and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country or region for communication. RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE Receptive language is ability to understand. Expressive language is ability to communicate. Reading and listening skills falls into this categories Speaking and writing skills falls into this categories First language skill to be developed Developed after the receptive language
  4. SPEECH The communication or expression of thoughts in spoken words. Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words The way we produce sound in the words that we say using our jaws, lips, tongue, teeth, vocal cords and air flow Articulation: the ability to produce specific sound( i.e. wabbit vs. rabbit) Voice: the quality of the sound produced (pitch, tone and intonation) Fluency: the smoothness and rhythm in our speech.
  5. H I S T O R Y
  6. OLDEST LIVING LANGUAGE OF WORLD TAMIL (5000 YEARS OLD) Tamil is the Oldest Living Language of the World. It is a language spoken by nearly 78 million people! It is widely spoken in Sri Lanka, Singapore and India and is a part of the Dravidian language family. It is also the official language of the state of Tamil Nadu
  7. EGYPTIAN Egyptian – 2690 BC (4700 YEARS OLD) be one of the oldest civilizations in the world. The ancient Egyptian language is attested in Egypt for over four thousand years Coptic was the most widely spoken language in Egypt till the late 17th century AD it was gradually replaced by Arabic after the Arab conquest of Egypt in 641 CE.
  8. SANSKRIT Sanskrit – 1500 BC (3500 years old) the second oldest language in the world still being used today. According to studies, Sanskrit forms the base for many European languages and is still one of India's official languages.
  9. GREEK Greek – 1450 BC ( 3500 years old) Greek is a Hellenic language. There are around 13 million native Greek speakers. Greek has significantly influenced Western literature. The longest Greek word contains 182 characters. The word “alphabet” is actually formed of “alpha” and “beta”
  11. The origin of language Language started around 150,000 years ago to meet humans’ communicational needs. The origin of language is under debate as evidence of languages before writing is almost impossible to find. the origin of all languages was the same, but they slowly evolved and made thoroughly different entities The origin of language was perhaps the need to communicate. Maybe the initial words were only howls and hoots, but eventually, they evolved to form a systematic way of communication for humans.
  13. THE BOW-WOW THEORY The bow-wow theory says that nature and especially nature sound are the starting point of linguistic systems. For example: Broken branches Rivers Meow Quack-quack etc.
  14. THE DING-DONG THEORY The ding-dong theory also called nativistic theory Assume that human name the sounds and names after sounds produced by object around Or example “boom” for explosion “crash” or thunder
  15. THE POOH-POOH THEORY Based on the evidence that speech arose through people making instinctive sounds The automatic vocal responses For example: Pain (ouch😢) Laugh (hahah😂) Fear (hoooo😨) surprise (wow😲)
  16. THE GESTURE THEORY Human language developed from gestures that were used for communication For example: deaf children learn to sign readily body language Posture head motion facial expression eye contact gesture
  17. what is language and properties of language RAMLA AMBER
  18. Q:WHAT IS LANGUAGE? Language is more than just communication, it is the primary method by which we do things together Language is the accumulation of shared meaning – of common ground Language can de defined in three words: Communication: One way communication message sent. Conversation: Two way communication both parties feel understood. Collaboration: Thinking , planning , making decisions.
  20. 1: DISPLACEMENT Displacement refers to the ability to speak about things other than here or now. Displacement is the most momentous between human language and the signaling system of all the other species. Humans can refer to past , present and future as well as to locations. Animal communication is generally considered to lack this property.
  21. 2: ARBITRARINESS The meaning of each individual word is arbitrariness. Each word is formed according to the phonological system to of the language . By the arbitrariness of the language we mean that there is no logical or inherit relation or similarity between any given feature of the language and its meaning. It is pervasive in human languages. Due to this feature even the most advanced computers programme can decipher the words it has not encountered before.
  22. 3: CREATIVITY No constraints on topics - We can talk about all kinds of new topics. We constantly add to the language - Object names: Fax , cellphone , compact disk - Actions: skateboard , dumpster dive - Novel combinations in sentences: The laboratory rat brought ripe cheese to the party A language user can manipulate his linguistic resources Open endedness.
  23. 4: Cultural Transmission Cultural transmission: We acquire our language in a culture with other speakers . It includes our accents and expressions. It is passed on from one generation to the next . We are born with the ability to acquire any language, but we learn our first language as a part of culture .
  24. 5: DISCREETNESS Discreetness means human language consists of distinctive units , different pronunciations in the sounds of human language leads to different meanings BACK ------- PACK PIN ------- BIN HEAT -------- MEAT FEAT ------- SEAT Each sound in the language system is treated as linguistically specific and discreet sound.
  25. 6: DUALITY DUALITY - TWO LEVELS : Distinct sound and distinct meaning. - Physical level at which we can produce different sounds e.g. n , b , i . - meaning level at which we can produce sounds in combinations e.g. nib ,bin. This duality of structure , or double articulation of language enables its users to talk about anything with in their knowledge
  26. Parts of the brain involved in speech and language BY SHANZAH KHATTAK
  27. Cerebrum It is the largest part of the brain It consist of right and left hemispheres. The left hemisphere is dominant as it controls language and speech. Each can be divided into regions called lobes that includes  Frontal  Parietal  Temporal  Occipital The frontal and temporal lobes are primary involved in speech formation and understanding.
  28. Broca’s Area Broca’s area, also called convolution of Broca’s, is the region of the brain that contains neurons involved in speech function. It located in the front part of the left hemisphere of your brain. It is also called main language centers of the brain. It's involved in the production of speech and written language. It has an important role in turning your ideas and thoughts into actual verbal words. It is linked with the processing and comprehension of language.
  29. Wernicke’s Area It is the region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech. It is in the posterior third of the upper temporal convolution of the left hemisphere of the brain. It process words and words sequences to determine context and meaning. It is responsible for understanding of language.
  30. Broca’s vs Wernicke’s The key difference between Broca and Wernicke area is that Broca area is part of the cerebral cortex that helps to ensure that language is produced in a fluent way, while Wernicke area is part of the cerebral cortex that makes sure language makes sense. Broca area is associated with speech production and articulation and Wernicke area is associated with language comprehension.
  31. Arcuate fasciculus The arcuate fasciculus is a band of nerves that connects Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area. It helps you form words, speak clearly, and understand concepts in language form. Damage to the arcuate fasciculus impairs the transmission of information between them.
  32. Cerebellum The cerebellum is located at the back of your brain. The cerebellum is involved in coordinating voluntary muscle movements like opening and closing your mouth, moving your arms and legs, standing upright, and maintaining balance. It also controls language processing. It can identify and correct language mistakes and writing skills.
  33. Motor Cortex It is in the frontal lobe of the brain. To speak clearly, you must move the muscles of your mouth, tongue and throat. This is where the motor cortex comes into play. the motor cortex takes information from Broca’s area and tells the muscles of your face, mouth, tongue, lips, and throat how to move to form speech.
  34. Mechanism of talking BY USMAN
  35. Difference between Speech and Language Speech is the sound of spoken language and includes the formation of a sound, the nature of the sound quality and the rhythm and flow of the sound. Speech is making the sound that become words. Language is the words we use and how we use them to share ideas and get what we want. Language is our system of using words to communicate. It includes using words and gestures to say what we mean, and understanding what others say.
  36. Mechanism Of Speech There are 3 mechanisms that are involved in producing speech. Respiration at lungs Phonation at larynx Articulation in mouth
  37. 1. Respiration at the lungs Anything that makes a sound needs a source of energy. For human speech sounds, the air flowing from our lungs provides energy.
  38. 2.Phonation at larynx The second is a source of the sound: air flowing from the lungs arrives at the larynx. Put your hand on the front of your throat and gently feel the bony part under your skin. That’s the front of your larynx. It’s not actually made of bone; it’s cartilage and muscle
  39. 3.Articulation in mouth The airflow from the lungs is then shaped by the articulators in the mouth and nose (articulation). The main articulators are the tongue, the upper lip, the lower lip, the upper teeth, the upper gum ridge.
  40. Language and Environment IQRA ADIL
  41. Language and Environment New study finds that a home environment that supports language development in early childhood—across the first four years of life— predicts children’s readiness to learn in pre-school, which in turn predicts the children’s academic skills in fifth grade.
  42. Language and Environment Children acquire a language through his experience that they get from various environments, it is called environmentalism. The more the exposure from environment, the better the acquisition process is. Specifically, children growing up in households with richer home language environments have been shown to learn vocabulary faster, exhibit increased processing speed, and develop overall stronger language and cognitive skills.
  43. Language and Environment Major finding indicates that a conducive environment created by the teacher helps students to enhance their speaking skills. For elementary students to be fluent in speaking the target language, the teacher needs to give them opportunities to talk about their own experiences.
  44. Language and speech disorder
  45. RCEPTIVE LANGUAGE DISORDER A receptive language disorder is one in which a child struggles to understand and process the messages and information they receive from others. Some children have a mixed receptive-expressive language disorder in which they have symptoms of both types of disorders.
  46. CAUSE AND SIGNS Genetic susceptibility the child's exposure to language general developmental and cognitive (thought and understanding) abilities, may be involved. SIGNS Here are some common signs of receptive language disorder: Tuning out when people talk. Trouble following directions. Trouble answering questions. Asking people to repeat what they say.
  47. TREATMENT Read picture books together and label the items you see. Read Play games with simple, predictable directions, like Simon Says. Play Play together, with toys your child chooses. Play Practice looking at the speaker and resisting interrupting. Practice
  48. EXPRESSIVE DISORDER expressive language disorder is a condition in which a child has lower than normal ability in vocabulary, saying complex sentences, and remembering words. However, a child with this disorder may have the normal language skills needed to understand verbal or written communication.
  49. CAUSE expressive language disorder is common in school-age children. The causes are not well understood. Damage to the cerebrum of the brain and malnutrition may cause some cases. Genetic factors may also be involved.
  50. TREATMENT The common treatment for language disorder is speech and language therapy. Treatment will depend on the age of your child and the cause and extent of the condition. For example, your child may participate in one-on-one treatment sessions with a speech-language therapist or attend group sessions.
  51. CAUSE OF LANGUGE DISORDERS Autism Genetic cause Brain injury Ear infection
  52. SPEECH DELAY DISORDER A speech and language delay is when a child isn't developing speech and language at an expected rate. It's a common developmental problem that affects as many as 10% of preschool children. TYPES OF DELAY SPEECH DISORDER: Apraxia Dysarthria Stuttering
  53. APRAXIA Apraxia (called "dyspraxia" if mild) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out skilled movements and gestures, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform them. Symptoms: Slower rate of speech, distortions of sounds long pauses between syllables. Causes: Stroke, traumatic head injury tumor or surgical trauma. For both children and adults, the treatment for AOS involves speech-language therapy.
  54. TREATMENT Sound and movement exercises. Speaking practice. Vowel practice. Paced learning
  55. STUTTERING is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant problems with normal fluency and flow of speech. People who stutter know what they want to say but have difficulty saying it. Symptoms Difficulty starting a word, phrase or sentence Prolonging a word or sounds within a word Repetition of a sound, syllable or word. Causes Abnormalities in speech motor control
  56. TREATMENT There is no known cure for stuttering, and like any other speech disorder: it requires therapy practice to treat or manage it
  57. Dysarthria oDysarthria occurs when the muscles you use for speech are weak or you have difficulty controlling them. Dysarthria often causes slurred or slow speech that can be difficult to understand. oCAUSE oBrain injury, stroke oParkinson’s disease oTREATMENT Treatments for dysarthria commonly include the voice exercises which help modulate speech clarity and voice.
  58. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. People with ASD often have problems with social communication and interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with ASD may also have different ways of learning, moving, or paying attention.
  59. CAUSE Having a sibling with ASD. Having certain genetic or chromosomal conditions, such as fragile X syndrome or tuberous sclerosis. Experiencing complications at birth. Being born to older parents.
  60. SYMPTOMS not responding to their name. avoiding eye contact. not smiling when you smile at them. getting very upset if they do not like a certain taste, smell or sound. repetitive movements, such as flapping their hands, flicking their fingers or rocking their body.
  61. TREATMENT Behavioral management therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy. Early intervention. Educational and school-based therapies. Joint attention therapy. SSRIs for anxiety and antipsychotics if they are aggressive and self injurious. These treat symptoms not autism itself. They do not treat the social communication deficits.
  62. Thank you
  63. Any questions