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Interactions of radiation_with_matter


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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. However, Einstein himself writes: "It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty." A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy.More information on:
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Interactions of radiation_with_matter

  1. 1. Interactions of Radiation With Matter RADL 70 Kyle Thornton
  2. 2. Basic Concepts Of Interaction Three possible occurrences when x or gamma photons in the primary beam pass through matter:  No interaction at all  Known as transmission   Absorption Scatter  The latter two are methods of attenuation
  3. 3. Attenuation The reduction of x-ray photons as they pass through matter Primary radiation – attenuation = remnant or exit radiation
  4. 4. Attenuation Of An X-Ray Photon
  5. 5. The Five Interactions Of X and Gamma Rays With Matter Photoelectric effect  Very important in diagnostic radiology Compton scatter  Very important in diagnostic radiology Coherent scatter  Not important in diagnostic or therapeutic radiology Pair production  Very important in therapeutic radiology Photodisintegration  Very important in therapeutic radiology
  6. 6. Photoelectric Effect All of the energy of the incoming photon is totally transferred to the atom  Following interaction, the photon ceases to exist The incoming photon interacts with an orbital electron in an inner shell – usually K The orbital electron is dislodged To dislodge the electron, the energy of the incoming photon must be equal to, or greater than the electron’s energy
  7. 7. Photoelectric Effect The incoming photon gives up all its energy, and ceases to exist The ejected electron is now a photoelectron This photoelectron now contains the energy of the incoming photon minus the binding energy of the electron shell This photoelectron can interact with other atoms until all its energy is spent These interactions result in increased patient dose, contributing to biological damage
  8. 8. Photoelectric Effect
  9. 9. Photoelectric Effect A vacancy now exists in the inner shell To fill this gap, an electron from an outer shell drops down to fill the gap Once the gap is filled, the electron releases its energy in the form of a characteristic photon This process continues, with each electron emitting characteristic photons, until the atom is stable The characteristic photon produces relatively low energies and is generally absorbed in tissue
  10. 10. Characteristic Radiation Cascade
  11. 11. The Byproducts of the Photoelectric Effect Photoelectrons Characteristic photons
  12. 12. The Probability of Occurrence Depends on the following:       The energy of the incident photon The atomic number of the irradiated object It increases as the photon energy decreases, and the atomic number of the irradiated object increases When the electron is more tightly bound in its orbit When the incident photon’s energy is more or close to the binding energy of the orbital electron This type of interaction is prevalent in the diagnostic kVp range – 30 - 150
  13. 13. What Does This All Mean? Bones are more likely to absorb radiation  This is why they appear white on the film Soft tissue allows more radiation to pass through than bone  These structures will appear gray on the film Air-containing structures allow more radiation to pass through  These structures will appear black on the film
  14. 14. Compton Scattering An incoming photon is partially absorbed in an outer shell electron The electron absorbs enough energy to break the binding energy, and is ejected The ejected electron is now a Compton electron Not much energy is needed to eject an electron from an outer shell The incoming photon, continues on a different path with less energy as scattered radiation
  15. 15. Compton Scatter
  16. 16. Byproducts Of Compton Scatter Compton scattered electron   Possesses kinetic energy and is capable of ionizing atoms Finally recombines with an atom that has an electron deficiency Scattered x-ray photon with lower energy    Continues on its way, but in a different direction It can interact with other atoms, either by photoelectric or Compton scattering It may emerge from the patient as scatter  Contributes to radiographer dose  or  Contributes to film fog
  17. 17. Probability Of Compton Scatter Occurring Increases as the incoming photon energy increases More probable at kVp ranges of 100 or greater Results:   Most of the scattered radiation produced during a radiographic procedure The scatter is isotropic  Sidescatter, backscatter, or small-angle (forward)
  18. 18. Coherent Scatter Occurs at low energies – below 30 kVp An incoming photon interacts with an atom The atom vibrates momentarily Energy is released in the form of an electromagnetic wave A combination of these waves form a scatter wave The photon changes its direction, but no energy is transferred May result in radiographic film fog
  19. 19. Pair Production Does not occur in the diagnostic energy range Incoming photon must have an energy of at least 1.02 MeV This process is a conversion of energy into matter and then matter back into energy Two electrons are produced in this interaction
  20. 20. Pair Production An incoming photon of 1.02 MeV or greater interacts with the nucleus of an atom The incoming photon disappears The transformation of energy results in the formation of two particles Negatron  Possesses negative charge Positron  Possesses a positive charge
  21. 21. Pair Production
  22. 22. Positrons Considered antimatter Do not exist freely in nature Cannot exist near matter Will interact with the first electron they encounter An electron and the positron destroy each other during interaction  Known as the annihilation reaction This converts matter back into energy Both the positron and electron disappear Two gamma photons are released with an
  23. 23. Pair Production The produced gamma photons may interact with matter through pair production or Compton scatter Pair production is used for positron emission tomography, a nuclear medicine imaging procedure It is also used in radiation therapy
  24. 24. Photodisintegration Occurs at above 10 MeV A high energy photon is absorbed by the nucleus The nucleus becomes excited and becomes radioactive To become stable, the nucleus emits negatrons, protons, alpha particles, clusters of fragments, or gamma rays These high energy photons are found in radiation therapy
  25. 25. Photodisintegration
  26. 26. Interactions Of Particulate Radiation With Matter Alpha radiation is monoenergetic Beta particles and positrons are also monoenergetic These particles lose energy in the form of ion pairs As they pass near or through a neutral atom, they remove energy through the force of attraction or repulsion
  27. 27. Interactions Of Particulate Radiation With Matter Alpha particles ionize by attracting an electron from an atom Beta particles ionize by repelling an electron from an atom
  28. 28. Two Mains Types Of Particulate Interaction Elastic interaction  No change in kinetic energy, it is transferred from one particle to another  Alpa particles colliding with outer shell orbital electrons Inelastic interaction  The total kinetic energy is changed after the interaction  Beta particles interacting with inner shell orbital electrons and slow down  This produces low penetrating secondary radiation
  29. 29. Summary Of Interactions