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Human systems


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Human systems

  3. 3. Skeleton ComponentsThe skeleton is composed of fibrous and mineralizedconnective tissues that give it firmness and flexibility. Itconsists of bone, cartilage, tendons, joints, and ligaments. Bone - a type of mineralized connective tissue thatcontains collagen and calcium phosphate, a mineralcrystal. Calcium phosphate gives bone its firmness.Bone tissue may be compact or spongy. Bones providesupport and protection for body organs. Cartilage - a form of fibrous connective tissue that iscomposed of closely packed collagenous fibers in arubbery gelatinous substance called chondrin. Cartilageprovides flexible support for certain structures in adulthumans including the nose, trachea, and ears. Tendon - a fibrous band of connective tissue that isbonded to bone and connects bone to bone. Ligament - a fibrous band of connective tissue that joinsbones and other connective tissues together at joints. Joint - a site where two or more bones or other skeletalcomponents are joined together.
  4. 4. Skeleton DivisionsAxial• Skull - includes bones of thecranium, face, and ears(auditory ossicles).• Hyoid - U-shaped bone orcomplex of bones located inthe neck between the chinand larynx.• Vertebral Column - includesspinal vertebrae.• Thoracic Cage - includes ribsand sternum (breast bone).Appendicular• Pectoral Girdle - includesshoulder bones (clavicle andscapula).• Upper Limbs - includesbones of the arms andhands.• Pelvic Girdle - includes hipbones.• Lower Limbs - includesbones of the legs and feet.