They represent the mostextensive group of plants in thePlantae Kingdom. There are around 250.000species of angiosperms identifiedand classified. They are known for theirflowers, fruits and cormophytecharacteristics.
All of them have flowers. They produce seeds. They have endospermwithin the seed. They produce fruits thatcontain the seed.
The root system is the subterranean orunderground part of the plant body whilethe shoot is the aboveground part. The plant root has no leaves, nodes, internodesand buds.
A hard, protective rootcap at the tip of the root.Absence of the pith.Presence of endodermis.Presence of pericyclenext to the endodermis.
Region of Cell Division•Which includes the apicalmeristem protected by theroot cap.Region of Cell Elongation•Where individual cellselongate and force theroot tip to move forwardthrough the soil.•It´s very short.Region of CellDifferentiation andMaturation.•Where the differenttissues of the root gettheir own characteristicsand functions.
Anchorageand support.•The plantroot systemanchors theplant in thesoil andprovidesphysicalsupport.Absorption andconduction:•The plantroot systemabsorbswater, oxygenand nutrientsfrom the soilin mineralsolution, mainly throughthe root hairs.•They arecapable ofabsorbinginorganicnutrients insolution evenagainstconcentrationgradient.Storage:•The rootserves asstorage organfor water andcarbohydrates.Photosynthesis:•Some rootsare capable ofperformingphotosynthesis, as in theepiphyticorchids andaerial roots ofmangrove.Aeration:•Plants thatgrow instagnantwater or otherwatery placeshave modifiedrootscalled pneumatophores towhich oxygenfrom the airdiffuses.Movement:•In manybulb- andcorm-formingplants, contractileroots pull theplantdownwardinto the soilwhere theenvironmentis morestable.Reproduction:•The plantroot systemalso serves asa naturalmeans ofperpetuatinga species.
Aereous part of thecormophytes It holds leaves,flowers and fruits. Provides mechanicalsupport for the plant. Storage structure.
PRIMARY STEM•Is the one that provides primary support to theplant and from which the rest of the structuredevelops.SECONDARY STEM•They are branches coming from the primarystem and ussually hold leaves, flowers andfruits.NODE•Place where the branch is produced.INTERNODE•Part of the stem located between two nodes.PETIOLE•Prolongation of the stem from where the leaveborns.
Presents negative geotropism.The shoots contaings growingbuds.Contains transport tissues thatcarries substances along the plant.
XYLEMPHLOEMXYLEM: vascular tissuelocated in the center of thestem, carries water andminerals absorbed by theroots to the rest of theplant.PHLOEM: vascular tissuethat surrounds thexylem, carries productscreated by thephotosynthesis, from theleaves to the rest of theplant.
Vegetative organ and generally flatten of thevascular plants. Main function: PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Laminar or acicular structure. Photosynthetic tissue.◦ Provides green color to the plant.Arcer platanoides
PHOTOSYNTHESIS:◦ Using the sunlight to produce chemicalenergy in the form of ATP and theconsecuent transformation andproduction of organic molecules as food. TRANSPIRATION:◦ Modified structures to prevent water lossin a natural way.◦ Regulates the amount of water thatcomes in and out of the plant, as well asthey help to absorb and transport waterfrom the roots to the rest of the plant.
Sheet: flat, thin, extendedpart of the leave. Nerves: vascular tubes thatconnect the stem with theleave. They can be found ina branched or paralleldistribution. Tip: extreme of the leavethat is always pointing up. Petiole: small portion ofthe stem that connects thebranch with the leave.Lámina oLimbo
Cuticule•Oily layer that protects the leave of dehydration.Epidermis•External cellular layer that protects the plant.Mesophyle•Photosynthetic cellular layer that contains the largest amount of chloroplasts.Stoma•Little pores that gets open to do the exchange of water vapour with the atmosphere.
This is what we called the FirstPrinciple of Thermodynamics. The total amount of energy in anygiven isolated physical system (withoutinteraction with another system)remains stable over time, althoughthat energy can be transformed intoanother form of energy.
Reproductive structure uniquefrom vascular plants. Main Function: to produce seeds bysexual reproduction. There are around 250,000 speciesof flower plants that they give theirsuccess to them.
Formed by 4 types ofmodified leaves:◦ Sepals◦ Petals◦ Stamen◦ Pistil It is only a short stem until itgrowths fully to form all thestructures of the flower.5 43211. Receptacule2. Sepals3. Petals4. Stamen5. Pistil
Calyx: formed by thesepals, its color isgreen and its functionis for protection. Corolla: formed by thepetals, with manybright colors and itsfunction is forprotection andattraction ofpollinators.Ludwigia sp.Cymbidium sp.
Process by which pollen is distributedfrom flower to flower for fecundation. This one can be done by animals orweather conditions like the wind or thewater.Mimulus sp.POLLINATIONSTRATEGIESAttractiveproducts likebaits (pollenand nectar),Reclaim meanslike smells andcolors,Viscous andsticky Pollen.
Its a dust a little bit more densethan ussual that containsmicrogametophites. The viscous structure of thepollen contains the malereproductive cells. It is design to allow a safetransportation from flower toflower. It is unique for each specie ofplant and has many shapes andforms.
1. The pollen is broughtfrom flower to flowerby the pollinators.2. The pollen descendsthrough the pistil tothe ovary.3. In the ovary, thefemale and malegametophytes getfussion and formed anew complete cellcalled zygote.4. The zygote issurrounded by aprotective andnutritive layer and theseed is formed.
Structure that contains the embryo and it is theway of plants to propagate. It is produce by the maduration and fecundationof the plant egg. It contains:◦ Embryo.◦ Food source layer(endosperm).◦ Protective layer.
It is a soft tissue produced by the plant. It contains the food source for the seed. It may have:◦ Oils◦ Starch◦ Proteins
It is the organthat comesfrom theflower, or partsof it, thatcontains teseeds until theymature andhelps to scatterthem.