Impact of training and development programs conducted in organizations. keziah rachel cherian


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Impact of training and development programs conducted in organizations. keziah rachel cherian

  6. 6. 6EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis research is conducted in order to measure the impact of training and developmentprograms conducted in organizations. In order to conduct this research the system levelaudit was used. The need for this study arose because companies invest a lot into thetraining programs. The ROI obtained from training programs conducted must besufficiently high in order to justify the amount spent on training the employees of anorganization.The objective of this research is to use the system level audit in order to measure theeffectiveness of training programs. This is done in order to identify the shortcomings ofthe existing training and development programs and to improve upon themThe findings of the study can be summed up as the following. Training and developmentprograms are gaining more significance in the industry. Care should be taken in order toensure that proper need identification is conducted before any training program isdesigned. The company should make it a point to employ the best trainers in the industryto conduct the programs.In order to improve the effectiveness of training programs, employees must alsocontribute while designing the training programs. Proper motivation should be providedto employees to attend the training programs. The training programs must be designed insuch away that it not only imparts technical knowledge and skill but also leadership skillsand human competencies.The following recommendations were given in light of the research conducted. Propertraining facilities must be in place in order to sustain creativity. Emphasis must be givento leadership and total quality. Experimental learning techniques must be used in thetraining programs. The communication channels must be very effective for any trainingto have an impact on the individual.Self learning by employees must be encouraged in the company. This will create alearning environment. Impact evaluations must be used in order to effectively improve 6
  7. 7. 7the training programs. A chance must be given to the managers to perform different tasksin order to attain the various competencies. 7
  8. 8. 8 CHAPTER 1BACKGROUND SCENARIOWilliam James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs byworking at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that ifthese same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90 percent of theircapabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivitycould well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one ofthe means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use oflearning resources.Training and development has been considered an integral part of any organization sincethe industrial revolution era. From training imparted to improve mass production to nowtraining employees on soft skills and attitudinal change, training industry has come a longway today. In fact most training companies are expecting the market to double by theyear 2007, which just means that the Indian training industry seems to have come of age.The market is unofficially estimated to be anywhere between Rs 3000 crores and Rs 6000crores. What is surprising is that the Indian companies’ perception regarding corporatetraining seems to have undergone a sea-change in the past two years, with mostcompanies realizing it to be an integral part of enhancing productivity of its personnel.While MNC’s with their global standards of training are the harbingers of corporatetraining culture in India, the bug seems to have bitten most companies aiming atincreasing their efficiency.According to Ms Pallavi Jha, Managing Director, Walchand Capital and Dale CarnegieTraining India, "The Indian training industry is estimated at approximately Rs 3,000crores per annum. The NFO study states that over a third of this is in the area of behaviorand soft skills development. With the exponential boom in the services sector and theemergence of a full-fledged consumer-driven market, human resources have become thekey assets, which organizations cannot ignore. 8
  9. 9. 9With soft skills training gaining so much momentum, it’s imperative to understand if it’sserving the right purpose or not. With this background, I plan to research if trainingindeed is proving to be effective in the behavioral area.The following steps must form the basis of any training activity:  Determine the training needs and objectives.  Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees.  Evaluate the results.There are few generalizations about training that can help the practitioner. Trainingshould be seen as a long term investment in human resources using the equation givenbelow: Performance = ability (x) motivationTraining can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilitiesof the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment andencouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have amajor impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used.What is Training?“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge of an employee for doing a particularjob” -Edwin B FlippoTraining is process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is the applicationof knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide theirbehaviors. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job and prepares themfor an intended job. 9
  10. 10. 10What is Development?Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities which improve jobperformance but also those which bring about growth of the personality. Training aperson for a bigger and higher job is development, this process includes not onlyimparting skills but also certain mental and personality attributes.Why Training is needed?  To increase Productivity  To improve Quality  To help the company to fulfill its Goals & Future Needs  To improve Organizational Climate  Obsolescence Prevention  Personal GrowthThe identification of training needs is primarily based on the skills that are required toperform the organizations set of standard processes. Certain skills may be effectively andefficiently imparted through vehicles other than in-class training experiences (e.g.,informal mentoring). Other skills require more formalized training vehicles, such as in aclassroom, by Web-based training, through guided self study or via a formalized on-thejob training program. The formal or informal training vehicles employed for eachsituation should be based on an assessment of the need for training and the performancegap to be addressed.Success in training can be measured in terms of the availability of opportunities toacquire the skills and knowledge needed to perform new and ongoing enterpriseactivities. Skills and knowledge may be technical, organizational or contextual. Technicalskills pertain to the ability to use the equipment, tools, materials, data and processesrequired by a project or process. Organizational skills pertain to behavior within andaccording to the employees organization structure, role and responsibilities and generaloperating principles and methods. Contextual skills are the self-management, 10
  11. 11. 11communication and interpersonal abilities needed to successfully perform in theorganizational and social context of the project and support groups.Training and the WorkplaceMost training takes place in an organizational setting, typically in support of skill andknowledge requirements originating in the workplace. We can identify five basic pointsat which we might take measurements, conduct assessments or reach judgments. Thesefive points are:1. before Training2. during Training3. after Training or Before Entry (Reentry)4. in the Workplace5. upon Exiting the Workplace Figure 1 - The Structure of the Training Evaluation Process 11
  12. 12. 12Training PurposeAs a management tool, training serves many masters and many purposes. The purposesfor or uses of training are given in the list below. The evaluation of training might varywith the purpose or use of the training itself. 1. Focusing energy on issues. 2. Making work and issues visible. 3. Supporting other interventions. 4. Legitimizing issues. 5. Promoting change. 6. Reducing risk. 7. Creating a community based on some shared experience. 8. Building teams. 9. Indoctrinating new staff. 10. Communicating and disseminating knowledge and information. 11. Certifying and licensing. 12. Rewarding past performance. 13. Flagging "fast trackers." 14. Developing skills.Given the diverse array of purposes listed above, it seems reasonable to conclude that theresults sought from the training would also be diverse.Changing expectations of trainingOrganizational expectations for training have shifted dramatically. The most pronouncedchange is a new and vigorous justification of the cost of training based on return oninvestment (ROI) and organizational impact. This transition has been driven by thecompetitive nature of the international economy and resulting changes in organizationalstructure, which produce flatter, thinner and fewer administrative cost centers. 12
  13. 13. 13In addition, training professionals are being asked to do more and play an important rolein the strategy of the organization. The ability to generate and apply knowledge is acompetitive advantage and source of new products, services and revenue.The nature of training itself is undergoing a transformation. Trainers no longer hold theprivileged position of "all knowing" content expert. Groups being trained often containindividuals with more depth of knowledge about, more experience applying or more timeto access current knowledge on the subject of the training. The training professionals thusbecome facilitators of learning and guides to available knowledge instead of contentexperts who bring "the info" into the training room with them. Trainers no longer "own"the knowledge. Instead, they synthesize and provide resources to clients who also haveaccess to the knowledge.As training has moved from satisfying trainees to improving organizational performance,the definition of customer has broadened. Trainees themselves are still among the"customers" of training -- and the trainees evaluations are important sources of feedbackfor continuous improvement and quality -- but the trainees organizational unit and theorganization as a whole are now part of the client system. Training is performed to solvethe business problems of the unit and have a positive impact on the organization.Need for EvaluationTraining and development staff is becoming more and more accountable for theeffectiveness of their programs. Evaluation can be used to determine whether the trainingachieves its objectives. Evaluation can also assess the value of the training, identifyimprovement areas and identify unnecessary training that can be eliminated.Many training professionals agree that evaluation is important to successful training, butfew conduct complete and thorough evaluations. Evaluation can seem anti-climatic to theexcitement and creativity of creating a new course. Typically evaluation is anafterthought or not done at all. "Evaluation builds in rigor. Its an integral part of thewhole quality effort. If you dont measure, how do you know whether what youve done isworthwhile?” With more emphasis on return on investment, companies are asking: what 13
  14. 14. 14is the value of training? Too often, training departments have little or no idea how theirtraining relates to the business objectives of the company. This could be due partially totrainers lack of measurement and evaluation skills, which result in measurements that arenot valid, reliable or even useful to the management of the company.The training department that measures increase in the number of students is in trouble. Atraining department that is concerned only with counting the number of students in seatsprobably isnt measuring whether the students learned anything or whether the skills theylearned are helping them to perform their jobs more efficiently. Most important is to notethe attitude that the students comes in with to undergo the training program.Evaluating Training -- A ModelBusiness changes have resulted in increased pressure on training professionals todemonstrate their worth. Do they do a good job? What is their impact on our work? Isthere a cheaper way to do this? What is the value added? What is the effect on ourprofitability -- that is, will we have a return on our investment in training?The literature of training evaluation provides a framework to answer these questions andhas addressed many of the current issues for trainers. Some time ago Donald Kirkpatrick(1975) provided a framework of four levels of evaluation:Level I -- the effectiveness as perceived by the traineeLevel II -- measured evaluation of learningLevel III --observed performanceLevel IV-- business impactMore recently, Jack Phillips (1991) has written that evaluation must go beyond Level IVand focus on real measurement of ROI. Dana Gaines Robinson, who’s writing (1989)redirected the attention of trainers to business impact, now (1995) exhorts trainers tobecome "performance consultants" and de-emphasizes training as an intervention. Robert 14
  15. 15. 15Brinkerhoff (1988) uses data gathering and evaluation to make the training function morecustomer-focused and practice continuous improvement.A New way of looking at Evaluating TrainingKirkpatricks Level I data is still needed to get feedback on the trainees perceptions of theexperience. Level II evaluation has probably become less important in todays businessenvironment. Level III evaluation is all important to both trainees and their businessunits. Individual performance (Kirkpatricks Level III) is not a level in itself; it is a focusonly when individual performance is the solution of a business problem or is integral tocustomer satisfaction. Level IV evaluation -- the impact on the business problem --probably provides the most important data to the unit and organization.Evaluators must respond to the new requirements by implementing all these concepts andevaluating at multiple levels. These levels will measure trainings success at completingits business tasks.1. Customer Satisfaction. The evaluation of customer satisfaction may be multi-dimensional for two reasons. First, the definition of training has expanded to include thetrainees unit manager, the unit and the organization -- not just the trainee in theclassroom. Second, we are measuring perception of quality, convenience and value. Thisinformation is crucial to continuous improvement.2. Impact on the Business Problem. This level is usually the most important to thebusiness unit manager. It answers the question, "Did the training make a positivedifference in the business problem I have?" You work with the business unit manager toidentify the business problem up front, not what needs to be taught, delivery or trainees tobe serviced. This level of evaluation also makes trainers think of training as one problemsolving intervention among many.3. Return on Investment. Training professionals have no choice but to demonstrate theeffects of their work on corporate profitability in todays organization. This is true ofevery unit in the organization. Whereas it was once considered impossible to measure the 15
  16. 16. 16ROI of training, many organizations now are doing so. The knowledge to achieve thisgoal is readily available to the practitioner, although the goal is still difficult, complexand dependent on a long-term perspective. Discussions with cost accounting experts arehelpful. However, the goal is reachable and once you begin to measure ROI your processwill improve. The challenges to justifying investments in training are significant andmore meaningful methods of evaluation will provide solutions. Training professionals arebeing asked to do more, to meet an expanded definition of "customer." But these changesand the changing organizational context have created new roles and opportunities fortraining.For an organization, the competitive advantage arising from training and developmentmay not be restricted to just equipping people with the requisite skills and knowledge. Italso has a tremendous impact on the recruitment and retention of employees. At theAmerican Society of Training and Development 2005 International Conference andExpo, keynote speakers outlined research results that indicate employee learning and skilldevelopment not only increase the bottom line but are high on the list of criteria that jobapplicants seek.Training and development has moved up on the business agenda and the challenge is nowfor the trainers to demonstrate to our colleagues in the boardroom that development is notsimply a motivational tool. It also strengthens and adds value to the individual and theorganization as a whole. Today it is not sufficient for a trainer to conduct a workshopusing well prepared presentations, an articulate manner with a generous display oftheatrical skills to hold audience attention. The bottom line and focus is the effectivenessof a training workshop. The question posed by most trainers is “How can I ensure that atrainee learns in a classroom to make a difference in the workplace?” this is the realchallenge.Training effectiveness as we can see needs to be gauged from 2 angles; delivery style ofinstructor and post training follow ups by them. As students, we can recall classroomswhere the teacher determined the content, structure, sequence, presentation andevaluation of instruction. As a matter of fact, most formal education relies on this model. 16
  17. 17. 17However, for some students who are curious and internally motivated, striking out ontheir own can result in a richer and more successful learning experience than one directedby the teacher.Likewise, teaching styles depend on the instructor and can differ profoundly fromindividual to individual. An individual’s teaching style will usually result in greater orlesser degrees of comfort with the many instructional tactics employed, such as lecture,role-play, small group activities, simulations, etc. When these 2 conditions-the learningorientation of the student and the teaching style of the instructor -are successfullyintegrated, effective learning can occur.The predominant learning philosophy underlying the design of many of today’s trainingprograms comes from the behavioral tradition that dominated the psychology of learninguntil the 1960s. What interested me is that Behavioral science defines learning as changesin behavior while cognitive science defines learning as changes in mental structures-what goes on inside our heads. The Behavioral model is grounded in the following basicassumptions: 1. Observable behavior, rather than ideas or mental activity, must occur to confirm that learning has taken place. 2. The environment shapes the behavior of the learner, not the reverse. 3. How closely in time teaching and learning bond together and reinforcement occurs is critical.`The behaviorist takes the position that the learner moves from a low-level, knowledge-based state through a rule-based state to a skill based state. And by organizing trainingaround this philosophy, outcomes can be determined through a series of measured andmeasurable accomplishments. 17
  18. 18. 18Don Kirkpatricks 4 levels of evaluationOne of the most widely used model for evaluating training programs is one that wasproposed in 1959 by Donald L. Kirkpatrick. The model maintains that there are fourlevels to measure the quality or effectiveness of a training course. Moving down thecolumn, the matrix presents these levels, in order, from simple and inexpensive tocomplex and costly. Each level has its advantages and disadvantages. It is important toplan the evaluation process as the training is being planning. It is important to consider alllevels at the outset, even though only one or two levels may be used ultimately.The four levels of Kirkpatricks framework are defined below using Kirkpatricks originaldefinitions.1. Reactions. "Reaction may best be defined as how well the trainees liked a particulartraining program." Reactions are typically measured at the end of training. However, thatis a summative or end-of-course assessment and reactions are also measured during thetraining, even if only informally in terms of the instructors perceptions.2. Learning. "What principles, facts and techniques were understood and absorbed by theconferees?" What the trainees know or can do, can be measured during and at the end oftraining but, in order to say that this knowledge or skill resulted from the training, thetrainees entering knowledge or skills levels must also be known or measured. Evaluatinglearning, then, requires measurements before, during and after training.3. Behavior. Changes in “on-the-job behavior”. Kirkpatrick did not originally offer adefinition per se for this element in his framework; nevertheless, the definition justpresented is taken verbatim from Kirkpatricks writings – the fourth and final article.Clearly, any evaluation of changes in on-the-job behavior must occur in the workplaceitself. It should be kept in mind, however, that behavior changes are acquired in trainingand they then transfer (or dont transfer) to the work place. It is deemed useful, therefore,to assess behavior changes at the end of training and in the workplace. Indeed, the originsof human performance technology can be traced to early investigations of disparities 18
  19. 19. 19between behavior changes realized in training and those realized on the job. The seminalwork in this regard is Karen Brethowers paper, "Maintenance: The Neglected Half ofBehavior Change".4. Results. Kirkpatrick did not offer a formal definition for this element of his frameworkeither. Instead, he relied on a range of examples to make clear his meaning. Thoseexamples are herewith repeated. "Reduction of costs; reduction of turnover andabsenteeism; reduction of grievances; increase in quality and quantity or production; orimproved morale which, it is hoped, will lead to some of the previously stated results."These factors are also measurable in the workplace. It is worth noting that there is ashifting of conceptual gears between the third and fourth elements in Kirkpatricksframework. The first three elements center on the trainees; their reactions, their learningand changes in their behavior. The fourth element shifts to a concern with organizationalpayoffs or business results.The following is a description of Kirkpatricks 4 levels of evaluating training:Donald Kirkpatricks 4 Levels of Evaluating TrainingLevels Description CommentsLevel 1 Reaction Trainee reaction to the Most primitive and course. Does the trainee widely-used method of like the course? Usually evaluation. It is easy, in the form of evaluation quick, and inexpensive forms sometimes called to administer. Negative “smile sheets.” indicators could mean difficultly learning in the 19
  20. 20. 20 course.Level 2 Learning Did the trainee learn Learning can be what was based in the measured by pre- and course objectives? post tests, either through written test or through performance tests.Level 3 Behavior Trainee behavior Difficult to do. Follow up changes on the job – are questionnaire or the learners applying observations after what they learned? training class has occurred. Telephone interviews can also be conducted.Level 4 Results Ties training to the Examples include companys bottom line. reductions in costs, Generally applies to turnover, absenteeism training that seeks to and grievances. 20
  21. 21. 21 overcome a business problem caused by lack of knowledge or skill.The results of trainingWhen we speak of measuring the results of training --we mean results beyond those ofsimply equipping people with the skills and knowledge necessary to carry out theirassigned tasks and duties -- we are redefining training as an intervention, as a solution tosome problem other than equipping people to do their jobs.In cases where skill and knowledge deficiencies are leading to mistakes, errors, defects,waste and so on, one might argue (and many do) that training which eliminates thesedeficiencies and in turn reduces mistakes, errors, defects and waste, is a solution to aperformance problem. This argument is extended to assert that the reductions in mistakes,errors, defects and waste, as well as the financial value of any such reductions constitutethe "results" of training.The logic of this argument has a certain superficial appeal but it is far from impeccableand even farther from compelling. In short, it does not withstand serious scrutiny. It isfrequently pointless to ask "What business results were achieved as a result of training?"because the goal of training is generally one of preventing mistakes, errors, defects andwaste, not correcting them. Thus, by a strange twist of circumstances, the only way toprove that such training is successful is to shut down the training. As is the case withsome other things, it is sometimes the case with training that the true measure of its valuelies in its absence, not its presence, but shutting down training is hardly a practical way oftesting that proposition. 21
  22. 22. 22Measuring Training EffectivenessTraining can be measured in a variety of ways including[List (Items I-V) are in increasing order of business value]:I - Prior to training  The number of people that say they need it during the needs assessment process.  The number of people that sign up for it.II - At the end of training  The number of people that attend the session.  The number of people that paid to attend the session.  Customer satisfaction (attendees) at the end of training.  Customer satisfaction at the end of training when customers know the actual costs of the training.  A measurable change in knowledge or skill at end of training.  Ability to solve a "mock" problem at end of training.  Willingness to try or intent to use the skill/ knowledge at end of training.III - Delayed impact (non-job)  Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the end of training.  Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the training when customers know the actual costs of the training.  Retention of knowledge at X weeks after the end of training.  Ability to solve a "mock" problem at X weeks after end of training.  Willingness to try (or intent to use) the skill/ knowledge at X weeks after the end of the training. 22
  23. 23. 23IV - On the job behavior change  Trained individuals that self-report that they changed their behavior / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months).  Trained individuals whos managers report that they changed their behavior / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months).  Trained individuals that actually are observed to change their behavior / use the skill or knowledge on the job after the training (within X months).V - On the job performance change  Trained individuals that self-report that their actual job performance changed as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months).  Trained individuals whos managers report that their actual job performance changed as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months).  Trained individuals whos managers report that their job performance changed (as a result of their changed behavior / skill) either through improved performance appraisal scores or specific notations about the training on the performance appraisal form (within X months).  Trained individuals that have observable / measurable (improved sales, quality, speed etc.) improvement in their actual job performance as a result of their changed behavior / skill (within X months).  The performance of employees that are managed by (or are part of the same team with) individuals that went through the training.  Departmental performance in departments with X % of employees that went through training ROI (Cost/Benefit ratio) of return on training dollar spent (compared to our competition, last year, other offered training, preset goals etc.).OTHER MEASURES  CEO / Top management knowledge of / approval of / or satisfaction with the training program. 23
  24. 24. 24  Rank of training seminar in forced ranking by managers of what factors (among miscellaneous staff functions) contributed most to productivity/ profitability improvement.  Number (or %) of referrals to the training by those who have previously attended the training.  Additional number of people who were trained (cross-trained) by those who have previously attended the training and their change in skill/ behavior/ performance.Popularity (attendance or ranking) of the program compared to others (for voluntarytraining programs. 24
  25. 25. 25 CHAPTER 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYTraining effectiveness is easier to measure in technical training but when it comes to softskills training it is a whole different ballgame. “Has the workshop actually made adifference to the way a trainee performs back on the job?” How can this be measured indefinite, quantifiable terms? One can sooner ask these questions and seldom answerthem, resulting in much head scratching and frustration.Many companies today are pouring resources into training and developing theiremployees. Some organizations rely heavily on external expertise whilst some engage in-house resources and material. Benefits, results, measurement, return on investment,behavioral change, performance improvement, accountability and learning applied on thejob are the ‘new age’ language of education, training and performance of development.Tony Bingham, CEO and president of American Society for Training and Development[ASTD] states that, “To be relevant, the workplace learning and performanceprofessional must be able to prove that the learning initiatives of the organization aredriving meaningful results. Organizations that merely measure the quantity or the dollaramount of their learning activities miss the boat. It’s not how much you do or how muchyou spend; it’s how you leverage the investment by generating results andcommunicating their impact”.Training design includes the sequencing of training events, deciding the evaluatingstrategy and incorporating learning principles to maximize learning and transfer. A keydilemma for training designers is how to determine the behaviors that are likely to bemodified or enhanced by the various instructional approaches. Employee attitude is avery important aspect in the corporate world where it has to be tackled like anemergency. Therefore research in this area becomes very crucial. 25
  26. 26. 26Crores of rupees are being spent annually by corporate on training but is there aproportional ROI being received by the Companies? Is there a change noticed bymanagers in their team members? Are they seeing them more effective at the work place?In most trainers’ experience, one interesting thing that has been observed is that peoplechange their behavior only when they feel the need to change it. But then there has to besomebody who can act as a “change agent” to bring about this inner realization in theindividual.A trainer feels that training does make people reflect within and motivates them tochange. Having said this, the researcher does understand and acknowledge that a lotdepends on the way or methodology a trainer adopts in bringing about this motivation inhis or her participants. This assumption gives rise to one basic question. What is the bestmethodology to bring in a change? Or alternatively, how does a trainer come to know thatwhat he or she is training is helping people and prompting them to change? While it’strue that the feedback a trainer takes soon after the training session does help him or herknow how the program was received by the participants, however it doesn’t help him toknow if the learning will be taken forward by the participants outside the classroom tobring about the necessary change.While a mere 2% consider assessing trainee reactions to be the purpose of evaluation and50% see the purpose as judging the quality and worth of the program in order to effectimprovements and/or identify the benefits of the training it should be remembered thatstudies already referred to provide evidence that many trainers are not evaluating beyondthe level of trainee reactions. What trainers believe should be done and what they do inpractice seem to differ markedly. 26
  27. 27. 27 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW LEADING TO IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH GAPLearning is said to happen if there is a “change in the learner’s behavior as a result of thetraining program.” Transfer of learning takes place when the individual is capable ofperforming new tasks by applying the knowledge skills and abilities gained from atraining program. How can I measure learning? How can this learning be attributed as theresult of the training the individual has received? How can workplace trainers ensure ordesign training programs that are current and relevant in order to facilitate transfer? Whatcan line managers do to enable effective transfer? What role do the learners themselvesplay to affect transfer back to work?Several books and websites were pursued to cull out relevant data for my research. Bookslike Training in Organizations by Irwin L. Goldstein, Training for Organizations byO’Conner, Bronner and Delaney appealed to me the most as it gave good insight intoTraining Needs Assessment and Training Evaluation criteria. The authors also broughtout very subtle yet important understanding of training. For effective training to takeplace, it is essential that one understands learning theory not merely as a set of buzzwords and jargon, but how different theories can contribute to successful learning.The trainer’s view-and attitude- towards learning and toward the individual learner hasmuch to do with the success of training. The greater the fit between the trainer’s attitudeand teaching practices-based on a sound understanding of theory- and the learner’s style,the more effective training is likely to be. Thus, content knowledge and appreciation oflearning theories are essential to the success of the training endeavor.The book very lucidly brings out Kirkpatrick’s evaluation criteria of training. As per him,there are four classic domains of evaluation: reaction, learning, job behavior and 27
  28. 28. 28organizational results. With the notion of a learning organization in mind, he also addedthe fifth dimension-the training process itself.The five domains of training program evaluation criteria are as under: 1. Reaction 2. Learning 3. Job behavior 4. Organizational results 5. Training processAmong the 5 domains, job behavior and organizational results are the 2 domains thatneed a mentioning here.Job Behavior: refers to the degree to which the KSAs learned were transferred back tothe job. Were trainees able to apply their learning outcomes in the workplace? Werethose trained able to take the knowledge, skills, and abilities they learned in the trainingprogram back to their jobs and actually use them there?Line managers play an invaluable role here. They, after all, make-or should make, thego/no-go decisions about training. They are ultimately the ones who say what subjects theorganization needs its people to learn, what the timing of that learning should be andwhat training participants should be included.Line managers play yet another role in evaluation, at the other end of the training process.They provide uniquely valuable insights as to whether or not the completed training hashad an impact on the work of the people they sent to training in the first place.One of the many ways of evaluating the impact of training on the job is to surveyparticipants (and their managers) once the program is over and people have had sufficienttime to put acquired skills and knowledge to use in their work. 28
  29. 29. 29Organizational resultsKirkpatrick’s organizational results domain refers to determining if training effortsparalleled either short or long term goals of the organization. Has the training helped theemployees in doing their jobs better, manage/grow their careers, understand thecompany’s goals, values etc. Now, organizational results-the ultimate reason for havingtraining in the first place-are very difficult to measure, chiefly because they result fromthe intermix off a wide variety of variables. For example, if sales go up soon aftertraining, it could be due to a new product offering, a seasonal fluctuation or simply moreadvertising in the media.On the other hand, it is possible to capture improvement data from the workplace that canlegitimately be claimed as the result of training. Examples here might be a sustained dropin processing errors or increased production for an individual or a group of workers.Understandably, this kind of data is difficult to track and procure.Close interactions with operational managers and learners in various training programspoint towards the following criteria being essential for transfer of learning to take place:  The learner has to learn something useful in the workshop. He/she has to be i.e. if they perceive a tangible benefit or reward sufficiently motivated to change behavior back at work  The learner should feel that what is taught is applicable to their current job. This implies that the timing of a workshop is critical. When is the trainee being sent for training and when are the skills needed?  The individual’s immediate supervisor must encourage and create the right kind of environment to help the learner apply what has to be learnt and  The organizational culture should support or enable such changes.Experience shows that much of adult learning centers around the fact that if there is nofelt need for new behaviors, there is no motivation to learn and change. Learners areusually apprehensive or do not want to apply the learning on the job for fear of ridicule orpressure not to change current working practices. Other obstacles could be time pressures 29
  30. 30. 30and lack of ongoing supervision. Some of these barriers could be real or imagined,however, new behaviors would diminish if not reinforced or supported. Our researchhence would focus on job behavior which can be tracked with relatively more ease.Some prominent research articles have been reviewed as below:Article: Measures of Learning Effectiveness:-Author: Michael BrannickSource: HRM Review. Jan 2003 There is no question about it. Training and development is gaining attention in thecorporate world. The industry is growing and changing to achieve a variety of goals, fromsatisfying immediate employment skill shortages to meeting organizations’ long-termstrategic needs. According to a survey conducted by Chief Learning Officer magazineand Fairfield Research Inc., enterprise firms in the United States spend, on average, $3.7million every year on learning and training. Total spending on corporate learning byenterprise companies is forecast to increase to $11.8 billion—a projected 4.3 percentincrease in 2003.Although many CEOs value training because they believe it strengthens the organizationand serves as a retention tool, not many are clear on how to measure the return on theinvestment (ROI). With increased pressure to justify expenses, CLOs are looking forways to show improved bottom-line results.“We are seeing more and more CLOs link the development of a training program to thestrategic direction of the company,” said Linda Gookin, senior consultant at the HayGroup, a professional services firm that helps companies worldwide develop theiremployees. “To maximize the effectiveness of a training program, an organization needsto use ongoing assessment to establish learning outcomes, link them to a performanceplan, define measures and finally evaluate learning—and this must be an integral part ofthe corporate strategic plan.” 30
  31. 31. 31There is a huge gap between the learning programs that produce results and many ofthose being implemented today. Certainly, there are many reasons this gap exists,including failure to link training to core business strategies, uncertain business andeconomic conditions, lack of acknowledgement or reward for training accomplishmentsand failure to make training an integral part of an employee’s job. These and many otherfactors can hinder the development of a learning program that produces results.When testing and assessment are held completely tangential to learning, the entireorganization is affected by the negative impact on the learning process, the learningoutcomes and the ability to measure ROI. Only when we hold learners and the learningprocess accountable to themselves will we see verifiable proof that learning has takenplace. When you are able to fully integrate testing and assessment into the development,management and evaluation of your organization’s learning system, you will be able tospend your training dollars knowing that you are getting something in return.No organization can afford to take a hit-or-miss approach to training. And noorganization can afford training that doesn’t pay off for the business.Testing and assessment are keys to providing the information needed to build and sustainlearning initiatives. Testing and assessment are absolutely integral to the learningprocess—just as content development, instructional design and methods of delivery areintegral. The proper use of testing and assessment vehicles—prior to learning, throughoutlearning and after learning takes place—will give you the means to provide standards ofconsistency, achieve accountability and ensure that your organization gains value fromtraining investments. 31
  32. 32. 32Article: The Role of Management Games as a Learning Tool:-Authors: Subhadip Roy and Atanu AdhikariSource: ICFAI Journal. Dec 2005Management games are gaining more and more importance in todays workplaces. Theynot only provide a respite from daily work but also help to imbibe within the players acomplex concept without the use of the lecture method of teaching and with the help offun element added in the game. They have now crossed the boundaries of organizations(where they used to be played primarily) and are now used in educational institutes likeBusiness Schools to make the students acquainted with concepts that are difficult toexplain, unless experienced. This article speaks about the origin of management games,the use of management games and the steps in conducting a game along with itsadvantages and disadvantages.Management games taken up in the workplace try to create off the job situations tofacilitate the processes of planning, experiencing and controlling any particular activity.In case of educational institutes, the management games are used to facilitate studentsunderstanding of a particular concept. A management game can be defined as:"A dynamic teaching device which uses sequential nature of decisions, within a scenariosimulating selected features of a managerial environment, as an integral feature of itsconstruction and operation" (Lloyd, 1978).If management games are designed properly and run, they can provide the best oflearning experience of two very opposite kind. The games offer examples of real lifebehavior which varies from person to person and at the same time can provide a practicalframework to assess the behavior in quantitative terms. Games provide high involvementsituations where the players are motivated to think and perform.Quite contrary to the common belief that games are only useful for educational purpose,it has been found out that they can be used for research also. The advantages of 32
  33. 33. 33management games in research are that it can delve into complex organization issuesover a short period of time. Thus, the popularity of management games both as aneducational tool and a research method is increasing all over the world.Article: Creative Thinking: The New Corporate Mantra:-Authors: PVL RajuSource: HRM Review. May02In the New Economy, intellectual power of knowledge workers is an important businesstool that the companies must leverage to their advantage. The wealth of the companydoes not lie in the physical assets; it resides in the human capital of the employees. Thearticle looks at the various dimensions of creative thinking and the process of lateralthinking.Article: Creative Performance Strategies:- Author: Gary BBrumbackSource: HRM Review. Aug 2005HR professionals need to take a proactive role in promoting and carrying out strategies touplift organizational performance. Brumback discusses five strategies to be followed byHR professionals to build that high-performance organization.Among the strategies available to any large organization such as a corporation aspiring toreach the ideal standard are five where HR professionals need to be actively involved intheir planning and implementation;  Creating the right culture;  Empowering the workforce;  Shortening the organization;  Shrinking the managerial class; and  Managing performance right. 33
  34. 34. 34Article: How to Inspire Creativity and Reward GoodEmployees.Source: HRM Review. January 2002Managers need to structure work environment in a manner that fosters creativity. Manyof us are good at some things and not all things. People are more efficient and productivewhen an organization encourages creative thinking. Traditional financial reward systemsrecognizes mere seniority. Companies need to be very creative in rewarding their bestand talented workforce.Article: Measuring the Impact of Training/Education.Authors: Karl-Erik Sveiby, Roland SimonsSource: HRM Review.September02What is Issue #1 in training/education? The trouble is that education and change effectsare so complex that ROI methods that measure in financial terms do not work. If weaccept that change and training/education ultimately aim at making the knowledgeworker more effective, we can narrow down the measurement task. What theoreticalresearch suggests is that effectiveness of knowledge work is primarily affected by trustand `culture. The authors have developed a theory for identifying one particular aspect of`culture that affects effectiveness, and they call it Collaborative Climate.This articlepresents results from the first research phase. Questions we have tried to answer in thisfirst piece of research have been: Can collaborative climate be measured? Do differencesin collaborative climate depend on gender, experience, age, education, size, powerposition, distance or type of organization, etc.?Article: Training Need Analysis. Authors: P V L RajuSource: HRM Review. March03As the name suggests the TNA is an attempt to understand the training needs inorganization. The analysis presents an approach to identify the gap between the existingperformance level in the employees and the desired level of performance to achieve the 34
  35. 35. 35organizational goals. In other words it identifies the gaps in the skills, knowledge andattitudes of the workforce and indicates the training inputs required to improve employeeperformance. It is essentially a diagnostic tool for the trainers.Article: Measuring the ROI on Training:- Author: AndrewDutta, Manjeesh K Singh.Source: HRM Review August 2003, pages 38-42This article puts up an easy measurement tool to measure the ROI on training by anyonewho wishes to measure it. Trainers have always neglected this process. This is perhapsbecause they did not like the idea of other people auditing what they do. Moreover,trainers also are not happy with the ‘subjective’ techniques that are usually used bycompanies. This lack of any objective evaluation is responsible for keeping training in asubordinate, non-strategic role in the organization.It also talks about the Donald Kirkpatrick’s model of evaluation, Level 1 Reaction, Level2 Learning, Level 3 Behavior and Level 4 Results.Article: Measuring training’s ROI: How important it is?Author: Dr. Amitabh Kodwani.Source: HRM Review February 2004, pages 49-53This article talks about T&D initiatives that are widely acknowledged by everybody as animportant feature of the competitive organization’s corporate strategy. But in practicedespite of heavy investments made in T&D initiatives, organizations frequently fail tomeasure adequately the value or success of their T&D programs.It also talks about the Donald Kirkpatrick’s model of evaluation, Level 1 Reaction, Level2 Learning, Level 3 Behavior and Level 4 Results. And the modified model of Phillips 35
  36. 36. 36and his five level model Level 1 Reaction, Level 2 Learning, Level 3 Behavior, Level 4Business impact and Level 5 Return on investment.Article: Cost-Benefit Analysis for Smart HRM:- Author:Nikhil Vohra.Source: HRM Review January 2004, pages 48-51This article talks about using tools like Balanced Scorecard for making cost benefitanalysis of various HRM process and activities like Training & Development, RewardManagement, Talent Retention, etc. It also talks about today’s business environment. Thesuccess of an organization depends on the efficient utilization of its resources.It gives four perspectives of Balanced Scorecard:  Learning and growth: Employee satisfaction and information system availability.  Internal perspective indicated, by quality response time, cost and new product/service introduction.  Customer perspective regarding customer satisfaction.  Return on Investment, Economic Value Added.Article: Training and development. Authors: T S RamaKrishna RaoSource: HRM Review. April03A buzzword that has found its way into the lexicon of management is "LEARNINGORGANIZATION". Notwithstanding their size, organizations big or small have beenlearning to survive for a long time.Peter Senge the author of the best selling book The Fifth Discipline-The Art and Practiceof Learning Organizations defines learning organizations as the places where peoplecontinually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, where new and 36
  37. 37. 37expansive pattern of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free andwhere people are continually learning how to learn together.Experiential LearningAn innovative methodology, the experiential learning method has been found to bewidely effective vis-à-vis other pedagogical initiatives. This method encompasses thebelief that learning is most effective when it involves active participation. 37
  38. 38. 38 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH GAPEvaluation is an integral part of most Instructional Design Models. Evaluation tools andmethodologies help determine the effectiveness of instructional interventions.While it’s easy to assess the effectiveness of training in technical programs, it’s achallenge to do the same in behavioral training. In technical training, the assessment canbe made depending on how the person performs at work after having acquired aparticular technical skill. However, behavioral training has its own challenges. And thatis because behavior of a person cannot be treated as a “constant”. Behavior is setprominently by the system interactions, interventions and interface. In our view, systems-level audit captures the essence of behavioral training.Six general approaches to evaluation can be identified:  Goal-based and systems-based evaluation  Goal-free evaluation  Responsive evaluation  Professional review  Quasi-legal While there is abundant literature on all the above approaches to evaluation except goal-based and systems-based evaluation; there is an inadequate research data base on the goal-based systems-based evaluation. There is thus a vital gap in the existing literature on measuring the effectiveness of training and development. This has prompted us to take up this research investigation. 38
  39. 39. 39 CHAPTER 5 PROBLEM STATEMENTHow do we measure the effectiveness of training and development through systems-levelaudit? This problem statement stems from the fact that we need to diagnose the systemsconstraints for the purpose of finding out the effectiveness of training and development.The audit questionnaire needs to be customized towards this end. 39
  40. 40. 40 CHAPTER 6 RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe core objectives of our research investigation are: 1. To conduct a systems-level audit of the effectiveness of training and development programs. 2. To recommend appropriate measures to enhance the effectiveness of training and development. 40
  41. 41. 41 CHAPTER 7 RESEARCH DESIGNTYPE OF RESEARCHThe research is qualitative in nature. The study is based on data collected throughstructured questionnaire from the respondents. The data has been collected by contactingemployees through Internet, as well as through personal contact. The data so generatedhas been tabulated using Tables, Charts, Graphs; and inferences have been drawnaccordingly.RESEARCH METHODThe method adopted in this research is a survey method.DATA GATHERING PROCEDUREData for the study was obtained by extensive use of internet and communicating withvarious professionals.RESEARCH TECHNIQUEThe research technique used is structured questionnaire which was distributed toprofessionals at various hierarchical levels in the IT industry.SAMPLE SIZE50 professionals from various organizations in the IT industry in Bangalore wererandomly selected for the present study. Respondents were requested individually to fillout the questionnaire. 41
  42. 42. 42SAMPLING TECHNIQUESample technique used is stratified random sampling.STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USEDPercentages and other mathematical tools.SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONProject Managers (20)Project Leaders (10)Senior Software Engineers (15)Trainers (5) 42
  43. 43. 43 CHAPTER 8 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS1. Since the scope of research is restricted to one unit in one area, the problem of generalization is obvious.2. Since the research is largely qualitative, the bias/ prejudice, which are deadly to any research, cannot be totally terminated. Never the less, we could gain an insights into the research topic with the help of meticulous cross checking of data with available data.3. Research investigation is restricted to select key personnel of the organization.4. Respondents may not have been open and honest in their responses. 43
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER 9 INDUSTRY PROFILEINDIAN IT INDUSTRY:The positive role the IT industry is playing in our lives is no longer a debatable issue.Most countries today are beginning to understand the value that information technologyis bringing to economies - introducing both efficiency and benefits. And businessesaround the globe have been investing heavily in the IT hardware and softwareinfrastructure. As communication within companies and users occurs more rapidly, withmore customized information, greater security, and interactivity and timeliness thanbefore, bus mess strategies and even the structures of companies and industries are beingtransformed.The Current Status of IT Industry:  Hardware industry segment witnessed significant increase in growth rate in 2001 because of increased Internet awareness and increased corporate spending on IT infrastructure.  Significant share of unorganized market in the hardware segment. Market mainly driven by imported components and influenced by price movements in the international market.  Software segment component has been increasing consistently in the overall IT industry turnover. The growth rate in software sector is primarily driven by exports component. The product, services and destination portfolio has witnessed significant increase in the recent past.  Highly fragmented software industry with over 5000 players and Just about 500 of them controlling more than 70% of the industry turnover. At one end of the spectrum are companies with global operations and necessary infrastructure and at the other end are small companies operating in niche technology driven segments.  One of the fastest growing industry segments in the Indian Economy 44
  45. 45. 45 CHAPTER 10 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Q1. In your company, induction training is given more importance now than in the past. TABLE 1 IMPORTANCE OF INDUCTION PROGRAM VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTALINDUCTION TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRAINING 10 15 15 10 50 GRAPH 1 importance of induction programs 20% 20% 30% 30% very true mostly true partly true not trueSOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Not all the respondents believe that the induction programs are very important. 45
  46. 46. 46 Q2. The induction program is a well-planned exercise and is of sufficient duration. TABLE 2 EXERCISE EXECUTION VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL EXERCISE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEEXECUTION AND 20 15 10 5 50DURATION GRAPH 2 DURATION AND EXECUTION OF INDUCTION PROGRAM 10% 20% 40% 30% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Most of the respondents believe that the induction must be well planned and should be of sufficient duration. 46
  47. 47. 47 Q3. Senior managers spend time with the new recruits during induction training. TABLE 3 TIME MANAGEMENT VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL BOND TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEWITH NEWRECRUITS 5 5 20 20 50 GRAPH 3 TIME SPENT WITH NEW RECRUITS BY MANAGERS 10% 10% 40% 40% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents feel that senior manager’s do not spent enough time with the new recruits. 47
  48. 48. 48 Q4. There is a structured widely-shared training policy in your company based on the business needs. TABLE 4 TRAINING STRUCTURESHARING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL OF TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUETRAINING POLICY 20 10 18 2 50 GRAPH 4 COMMON STRUCTURED TRAINING PROGRAM 4% 36% 40% 20% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents believe that there is a structured widely-shared training policy in a company based on the business needs. 48
  49. 49. 49 Q5. Your company’s training and development programs are evaluated and improved upon every year. TABLE 5 EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTALTRAINING TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE AUDIT 26 18 4 2 50 GRAPH 5 EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF T & D 4% 8% 52% 36% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents believe that training and development programs are evaluated and improved upon every year. 49
  50. 50. 50 Q6. Employees are helped to upgrade their technical knowledge and skills through training. TABLE 6 ROLE OF TRAINING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL KSA TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEUPGRADATION 27 15 7 1 50 GRAPH 6 EMPLOYEE UPGRADATION OF KSAS 2% 14% 54% 30% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Training plays an important part in helping employees upgrade their technical knowledge and skills. 50
  51. 51. 51 Q7. Workers are encouraged and rewarded for training to acquire higher qualifications. TABLE 7 REWARD FOR EMPLOYEES VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL REWARDS TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE ASINCENTIVES 12 15 10 13 50 GRAPH 7 MOTIVATION OF REWARD FOR EMPLOYEES 26% 24% 20% 30% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents feel that in order to achieve higher qualifications, workers are encouraged and rewarded for training. 51
  52. 52. 52 Q8. There is also an emphasis on developing leadership skills down the line through training and development. TABLE 8 TRAINING IMPORTANCE VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTALEMPHASIS TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE ON T & D 15 10 13 12 50 GRAPH 8 DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP SKILLS THROUGH T&D 24% 30% 26% 20% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Most respondents feel that training and development programs can be used to develop leadership skills. 52
  53. 53. 53 Q9. Human relations competencies are developed through training in human skills. TABLE 9 HUMAN SKILLS DEVELOPED THROUGH TRAINING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTALLINK BETWEEN TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRAINING &COMPETENCIES 10 11 28 1 50 GRAPH 9 DEVELOPING HUMAN RELATIONS COMPETENCIES THROUGH TRAINING 2% 20% 56% 22% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUEPARTLY TRUENOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Most respondents believe that human relations competencies are developed through training in human skills. 53
  54. 54. 54 Q10. Employees are sponsored for training programs on the basis of carefully identified needs. TABLE 10 NEED IDENTIFICATION TO SELECT TRAINEES VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRAINEE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUESELECTION 26 12 8 4 50 GRAPH 10 SPONSORING OF TRAINEES BASED ON NEED IDENTIFICATION 8% 16% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE 52% PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUE 24%SOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: The respondents believe that after carefully analyzing the training needs, the candidates for training are sponsored. 54
  55. 55. 55 Q11. Employees participate in determining their training and know the skills they must acquire. TABLE 11 EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRAINEE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEKNOWLEDGE 3 9 20 18 50 GRAPH 11 DETERMINATION OF SKILLS NEEDED BY EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION 6% 18% 36% 40% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Not all the respondents believe that the employees participate in determining the training and the skills needed. 55
  56. 56. 56 Q12. Briefing and debriefing sessions are conducted for employees sponsored for training. TABLE 12 EMPLOYEE BRIEFING AND DEBRIEFING VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRAINEE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEUPDATATION 10 15 22 3 50 GRAPH 12 SESSIONS TO BRIEF AND DEBRIEF TRAINEES 6% 20% 44% 30% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: According to respondents, briefing and debriefing sessions are conducted for the trainees. 56
  57. 57. 57 Q13. Internal training programs are handled by the best possible faculty your company can access. TABLE 13 HANDLING OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRAINERS TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUECOMPETENCY 15 23 9 3 50 GRAPH 13 TRAINERS FOR THE INTERNAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 6% 18% 30% 46% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents feel that training programs should be conducted by the best trainers. 57
  58. 58. 58 Q14. Experimental action-oriented techniques, including games, are used in training programs. TABLE 14 TECHNIQUES USED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL ACTION TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEORIENTEDPROGRAMS 15 14 12 9 50 GRAPH 14 ACTION ORIENTED TECHNIQUES USED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS 18% 30% 24% 28% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents strongly agree that the training programs should contain experimental action oriented techniques which is inclusive of games. 58
  59. 59. 59 Q15. Training programs for quality and globalization are the core of your company’s curriculum. TABLE 15 QUALITY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL TRAINING TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUECURRICULUM 27 16 4 3 50 GRAPH 15 QUALITY AND GLOBALIZATION 6% 8% 54% 32% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents strongly feel that training programs for quality and globalization should be at the core of a company’s curriculum. 59
  60. 60. 60 Q16. Impact evaluations are conducted and used for the revision of training programs. TABLE 16 REVISION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL IMPACT TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUEEVALUATIONS 10 25 10 5 50 GRAPH 16 IMPACT EVALUATIONS 10% 20% 20% 50% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents agree that impact evaluations should be used for the revision of training programs. 60
  61. 61. 61 Q17. Various methods are used to help employees learn and implement creative ideas. TABLE 17 METHODS OF DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTALCREATIVE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE IDEAS 8 22 16 4 50 GRAPH 17 USAGE OF VARIOUS METHODS TO LEARN 8% 16% 32% 44% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents agree that there are various methods that are used to help employees learn and implement creative ideas. 61
  62. 62. 62 Q18. A system of mentoring===providing emotional support and guidance to young managers—is followed. TABLE 18 MENTORING FOR THE YOUNG MANAGERS VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL SUPPORT TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE ANDGUIDANCE 4 18 12 16 50 GRAPH 18 MENTORING 8% 32% 36% 24% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents agree that the practice of mentoring should be followed. 62
  63. 63. 63 Q19. The company encourages and supports self-learning and education by its managers. TABLE 19 SELF-LEARNING ENCOURAGED AND SUPPORTED BY COMPANYCOMPANY VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL SUPPORT TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TOMANAGERS 23 13 8 6 50 GRAPH 19 ENCOURAGEMENT TO MANAGERS TO LEARN BY THE COMPANY 12% 16% 46% 26% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents strongly agree that the company should support and encourage self-learning by the managers. 63
  64. 64. 64Q20. Managers are provided with opportunities to perform different tasks and acquire competencies. TABLE 20 OPPORTUNITIES TO PUT IN PRACTICE TRAINING DATA VERY MOSTLY PARTLY NOT TOTAL JOB TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUELEARNING 16 15 17 2 50 GRAPH 20 LEARNING THE COMPETENCIES THROUGH DIFFERENT TASKS 30% 34% 32% 4% VERY TRUE MOSTLY TRUE PARTLY TRUE NOT TRUESOURCE: FIELD INVESTIGATIONINFERENCE: Respondents believe that the managers should be provided with opportunities to perform different tasks and learn different competencies. 64
  65. 65. 65 CHAPTER 11 A SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGSInduction programs in companies have not gained much importance over the years evenas industries are growing at a very fast pace. The induction program must be well plannedand of sufficient duration. During the induction program, managers must spend time withthe new recruits in order to welcome them and make them feel at home.Highest number of respondents believes that every company has a well structuredtraining program which is evaluated and revised regularly in order to gain the maximumbenefit. Impact evaluations are also conducted and the findings used in the improvementprocess.The employees should be involved in the designing of the training programs. The skillsneeded are also analyzed before the commencement of any training program. Motivationcan be provided to employees in the form of rewards.Before any candidates are selected for training, the need for training is done. Based onthe need identification, trainees are sponsored. Leadership skills are also developedthrough training programs. The trainees are briefed and debriefed for the training session.The training programs should be conducted by the best faculty that the company canaccess. The training programs should also contain experimental action-orientedtechniques which includes games. The learning and retention process is faster when thesekinds of programs are used.The managers should be provided the opportunity to transfer the skills and knowledgeobtained through the training. 65
  66. 66. 66 CHAPTER 13 RECOMMENDATIONSThe following recommendations emerge from our research findings:  Provide better training facilities for employees.  Customized rewards and incentives.  Provide updated technology and software packages.  Encourage time off for self development.  Provide challenging work profile and clear career path.  Provide and open work culture facilitating individual growth.  Create a dynamic organization open to changes.  Ensure transparency in all processes.  Provide an increase in responsibility and quality work.  Avoid indifferent attitude and interference in work.  Improve communication and communication channel.  Management should avoid adhoc decision-making.  Avoid politics, bureaucracy, favoritism that could de-motivate employees.  Provide facilities for outbound learning  Provide facilities for training for creativity by adopting EREWHON MODEL. Some of the best practices in this regard are (a) break down the creative process into several steps that can be easily taught (b) instill the importance of suspending judgment till other options emerge; (c) teach people to look at a problem from the prospective of the customer (d) train managers to get the creative chemistry right between team members (d) transfer creative practices which have been adopted by people in related fields  Train for leadership. Some of the best corporate practices are: (a) institutionalize leadership training for every tier of the company (b) invest in an off-job leadership training module to initiate the process (c) develop a formal in-house program to retrain people in leadership (d) modify the rewards system to 66
  67. 67. 67 constantly reinforce leadership behavior (e) insist A Team sets standards of leadership by example Train for total quality. Some of the best practices are: (a) provide employees first- hand experience of global corporate practices (b) ensure that supervisors and managers are trained along with workers (c) expose employees to the environments in which customers use the products (d) constantly retrain employees in the theory and practice of TQM including six sigma (e) link quality in the workplace to quality on employees lives Retrain the middle managers who are prone to obsolescence. Some of the best practices are: (a) detail every competence and skill which middle managers must process (b) revise training schedules only to retrain them for their new roles (c) devote two-thirds of training budget to retrain middle managers (d) use job rotation as a crash course in retraining middle managers (e) expose middle managers to key customers as often as possible Provide facilities induction training module vigorously Use experiential learning technique profusely in the training and development program particularly in cross-cultural trainingTo sum up, auditing the effectiveness of training and development programs is atedious task. The focus of the systems-level audit should be on:  Making learning one of the fundamental values of the company  Committing major resources and adequate time to training  Using training to bridge the gap with the external environment  Integrating training into initiatives for change management  Using training as developmental tool for individual employees  Linking organizational, operational and individual training needs 67