Linking words: contrast (FCE Use of English and writing)

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Linking words: contrast (FCE Use of English and writing)

  1. 1. Linking words (contrast) In the FCE Use of English paper, you are often tested on the differences between linking words, especially in the multiple-choice cloze (Part 1). It’s also useful to know the differences for the writing paper. All of the linking words used here show a (surprising) contrast between two ideas, but they are used in different ways. A clause is ‘a group of words that includes a subject and a verb, and forms a sentence or part of a sentence’ (www.oald8.com) but neutral clause (A) , but clause (B) My dog had died that morning , but I wasn’t as sad as I expected to be. although / even though ‘although’ is neutral; ‘even though’ is more formal and a bit stronger Although clause (A) , clause (B) Even though Although my dog had died that , I wasn’t as sad as I expected to be. Even though morning OR , although clause (B) clause (A) , even though , although I wasn’t as sad as I expected to be my dog had died that morning. , even though however / nevertheless ‘however’ is more formal than ‘but’ and ‘although’; ‘nevertheless’ is very formal . However, sentence (A) sentence (B) . Nevertheless, My dog had died that . However, I wasn’t as sad as I expected to be. morning . Nevertheless, OR (to show more emphasis) sentence (A). My dog had died that morning. My dog had died that morning. sentence (B) part 1 , however, , nevertheless, sentence (B) part 2 I wasn’t , however, as sad as I expected to be. I was , nevertheless, not as sad as I expected to be. despite / in spite of BE CAREFUL! ‘Despite’, but ‘In spite OF’. Not ‘Despite of’. They mean the same. more formal than ‘but’, ‘although’ and ‘however’; less formal than ‘nevertheless’ (a) noun Despite (b) noun + -ing , clause (B) In spite of (c) the fact that + clause (A) (a) the death of my dog that morning Despite (b) my dog dying that morning I wasn’t as sad as I , In spite of (c) the fact that my dog had died that expected to be. morning Created by Sandy Millin http://sandymillin.wordpress.com
  2. 2. Linking words (contrast) Here are some examples of Use of English questions which test these linking words. Choose the correct word for each space. 1. He had no record of what he had written. _________ he knew that he would have to rewrite the missing pages, he decided to wait a few days. A Despite B Although C However D Even 2. Earth is the only planet we know of in the universe that can support human life. _________, human activities are making the planet less fit to live on. A But B Although C However D In spite 3. This house is so old now. When it rains, the windows leak and the roof needs to be replaced soon. ____________, we love it and would never move to another. A Nevertheless B Although C Though D Despite 4. _________ sounding very boring, the film was actually pretty interesting. I would recommend it! A Although B However C Despite D Nevertheless 5. _________ you won't appreciate it yet, you'll be happy that you stopped smoking when your health improves. A But B However C In spite D Even though 6. Welcome to the Netherlands, a tiny country that only extends, at its broadest, 312 km north to south, and 264 km east to west, ___________ the land area increases slightly each year as a result of continuous land reclamation and drainage. A nevertheless B despite C in spite of D although 7. The officials have been delighted to see the amount of homework getting done, morning and evening, as the internet bus picks up and drops off students along the 70-minute drive. __________ some students spend their time playing games or visiting social networking sites, most students do make the most of their travel time to study. A Nevertheless B Although C In spite of D Despite 8. It was Groundhog Day in the USA. Unfortunately, __________ the large crowds were hoping for a prediction of good weather, Phil saw his shadow and returned to his hole, so everyone knew that winter was going to last for a few more weeks. A although B but C in spite of D nevertheless Examples adapted from FCE Gold Plus Student’s Book; www.flo-joe.com; www.esl-lounge.com; www.englishrevealed.co.uk; www.englishaula.com; http://fceilud.orgfree.com/ Created by Sandy Millin http://sandymillin.wordpress.com

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