Vision browarddraft


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Emerging Solid Waste Management Technologies, Vision Broward

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Vision browarddraft

  1. 1. Vision Broward February 9, 2007 Sandy Gutner, PE
  2. 2. Agenda •  Some solid waste basics •  Broward County Solid Waste Program •  Review of Emerging Solid Waste Technologies •  Development Factors to Consider •  Discussion
  3. 3. County as Responsible Entity •  Each county shall implement a recyclable materials recycling program. •  Such programs shall be designed to recover a significant portion of at least four specified materials. •  A county’s goals shall be to divert or reduce waste disposal by 30 percent or more. •  The Broward Resource Recovery Board was created by the County to address the needs of incorporated and unincorporated Broward County. Section 403.706(1): The governing body of a county has the responsibility and power to provide for the operation of solid waste disposal facilities to meet the needs of all incorporated and unincorporated areas of the county.
  4. 4. Broward County(3) 51% 25% 24% 8.61(2)+ Statistical Comparison Municipality Waste Landfilled Waste Combusted Waste Diverted Waste Generated+ per capita lbs/day Nationwide(1) 54.3% 13.6% 32.1% 4.54 Florida State(2)* 59% 13% 28% 9.79+ Sources: (1)US EPA’s Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2005 Facts and Figures * State values, though 2 years older than County’s, vary marginally year to year, as stated by FDEP Staff. (3) Draft Calendar Year 2005 Broward County Report to FDEP (2) Florida State - FDEP Calendar Year 2003 Data Tables + Note: Values from the 2003 FDEP data tables are for per capita MSW collection, not generation.
  5. 5. Population of Broward County Broward County’s population has increased steadily over the years; nearly tripling since 1970. With more than 1.7 million residents today, it is the second most populated county in Florida.
  6. 6. Waste Generation in Broward County Population (not to scale) Waste generation
  7. 7. Broward County’s Resource Recovery System Wheelabrator South (WTE) Wheelabrator North (WTE) Ash Monofill Recycling Facility Contingency Landfill County HHW HHW
  8. 8. Looking to the Future… •  The current system is aging, and may require expansion •  Appropriate sites for new facilities are rare and controversial •  Emerging technologies hold many potential benefits, if commercialized
  9. 9. …and why are they important? Conversion Technologies are an array of emerging technologies capable of converting solid waste into useful products and chemicals, green fuels like ethanol and biodiesel, and clean, renewable energy What are Conversion Technologies…
  10. 10. •  Ability to create higher end use for green and organic wastes (including biosolids, agricultural residue, etc.) •  Ability to recover for beneficial use, materials not feasibly recyclable •  Reduce pollution and environmental impacts •  Preserve valuable landfill space while maintaining local control over disposal •  Ability, locally, to produce renewable energy and green fuels, including ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, etc. •  Reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions Potential Conversion Technology Benefits
  11. 11. Sample Conversion Technologies •  Pyrolysis is the thermal processing of waste in the absence of oxygen •  Gasification is the thermal processing of waste with a limited amount of oxygen using some combination of heat, pressure, and steam to convert materials directly into a gas Thermal:
  12. 12. Sample Conversion Technologies •  Acid Hydrolysis is the chemical decomposition of waste using acid and water to split chemical bonds Chemical:
  13. 13. Sample Conversion Technologies •  Anaerobic digestion is the bacterial breakdown of organic materials in the absence of oxygen •  Aerobic digestion is, essentially, composting Biological:
  14. 14. Thermal Conversion Pyrolysis –  Endothermic (heat used to initiate process) –  Organics used only, feedstock must be homogeneous Plasma Arc –  Converts selected waste streams to slag and syngas –  Syngas can be burned for energy, slag can be reused/sold Gasification –  Partial oxygenation of feedstock to produce syngas –  Requires sorting and preprocessing –  Often used in conjunction with Plasma Arc or Pyrolysis
  15. 15. Pyrolysis/Gasification – Thermal Conversion Process Pre-Processing Conversion Output/Byproducts Image sources: Ebara Corporation and Entech Renewable Energy Technologies P/L
  16. 16. Plasma Arc – Thermal Conversion Process
  17. 17. Plasma Arc/Gasification – Thermal Conversion Technology Pre-Processing Conversion Output/Byproducts Image source: Geoplasma, LLC
  18. 18. Biological •  Generally lower temperature process •  Uses biodegradable feedstock •  Produces compost, chemicals and gases •  Anaerobic digestion uses microorganisms to breakdown organic MSW without oxygen •  Aerobic digestion uses microorganisms to breakdown organic MSW with oxygen •  Pre-sorting recovers marketable goods •  End products often marketable
  19. 19. Anaerobic Digestion – Biological Process Pre-Processing Conversion Output/Byproducts Image source: ISKA GmbH
  20. 20. Chemical Acid Hydrolysis –  Converts cellulose-based material to ethanol –  Requires some pre-sorting of materials Catalytic Cracking –  Converts select waste to hydrocarbon based products –  Applies only to clean plastic waste streams Thermal Depolymerization –  Converts bio-waste into “green fuels” –  Not known to process mixed MSW Ethanol Fermentation –  The conversion of cellulose based waste via hydrolysis, fermentation and dehydration to make ethanol as a fuel
  21. 21. Acid Hydrolysis – Chemical Process Pre-Processing Conversion Output/Byproducts
  22. 22. Overview of New and Emerging Technology •  There are over 100 vendors developing these new and emerging technologies •  At least 20% of them are operating pilot or demonstration programs •  Many are international •  Numerous new and emerging technologies are not yet commercially viable for MSW, but are commercially operational for specific waste feedstocks
  23. 23. Things to Consider About an Emerging Technology •  Proven for the types of waste to be processed •  Proven at the approximate scale contemplated •  Regulatory perspective •  Financial strength of developer •  Track record of developer with other projects •  Maintain reliable contingency plan
  24. 24. Vision Broward February 9, 2007 Sandy Gutner, PE Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.