Referencing Autumn 2009

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An introduction to Harvard referencing

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Referencing Autumn 2009

  1. 1. Referencing Alexander Buchanan
  2. 2. Outcomes <ul><li>What referencing is </li></ul><ul><li>Why we reference </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographies and reading lists </li></ul><ul><li>Key information you need for a reference </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find this information </li></ul><ul><li>Citing references in the text </li></ul>
  3. 3. Help on Referencing <ul><li>search for 'referencing' on either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shuspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library catalogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guide to Referencing and Citations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning centre helpdesks </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>telephone: 0114 225 3333 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Referencing? 1 <ul><li>A way of acknowledging your use of other people's work </li></ul><ul><li>A way of enabling people to find the material you have used for themselves </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Referencing? 2 There are two parts to referencing: <ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>listing the materials you used so that others can find them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>marking out the ideas and information you used in your assignment that came from other people. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. What is Referencing? 3 <ul><li>More than one system of referencing! </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest difference in the citation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some use the author's name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some use a number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sheffield Hallam uses a system of referencing called 'Harvard SHU LITS' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses author's name for the citation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. What is Referencing? 4 <ul><li>But whatever you do, be consistent in how you reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps to avoid confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which is the author, which is the title? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diana Brydon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christina Stead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why references often use italics, capital letters, etc to delineate between elements </li></ul>
  8. 10. Why Reference? 1 <ul><li>It's an academic convention </li></ul><ul><li>Shows when you are using others' ideas or information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesy to those whose ideas you use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But more importantly… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps avoid plagarism (stealing ideas) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Why Reference? 2 <ul><li>To show your evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>readers can check the original sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>readers can find more information on the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an easy way for you to do research! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And in context of the university: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>your tutor can see what- and how much- you've read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you can see what you've read! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. When to Reference <ul><li>Every Time you: </li></ul><ul><li>Directly quote someone else's work </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase someone else's work (use your own words) </li></ul><ul><li>Use ideas from someone else's work </li></ul><ul><li>Use data, figures, or information from someone else's work </li></ul><ul><li>Use diagrams, images, tables or charts from someone else's work </li></ul>
  11. 13. Bibliographies and Reading Lists <ul><li>A list of material you have read for the piece of work </li></ul><ul><li>At end of your assignment </li></ul><ul><li>In alphabetical order by the surname of the first author/ editor/ creator </li></ul><ul><li>DAVIS , Claire and WILCOCK, Elizabeth (2005). The science of tennis. Physics review, 15 (1), 2-5. </li></ul><ul><li>KAWAMURA , S., et al. (2006). Influence of sports equipments on human arm. Sports engineering, 9 (4), 229-249. </li></ul><ul><li>MILLER , Stuart (2005). Performance measurement of tennis equipment. Journal of mechanics in medicine and biology, 5 (2), 217-229. </li></ul>
  12. 14. What information to use <ul><li>All materials needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Author/ editor/ creator/ artist/ director/ etc… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surname first (in capitals), then forename </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be an organisation, government, committee, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Year material was published/created </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both title of article/chapter and of journal/book </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Page numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if using part of larger work (book chapter, journal article, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write it down now- you'll never remember later! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394 </li></ul><ul><li>CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394 </li></ul><ul><li>CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394 </li></ul><ul><li>CANTOR, Brian, GRANT, Patrick and JOHNSTONE, Colin (eds.) (2008). Automotive engineering: lightweight, functional and novel materials . London, CRC Press </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>VERNEZ, David and VUILLE, Francois (2009). Method to assess and optimise dependability of complex macro-systems: application to a railway signalling system. Safety science , 47 (3), 382-394 </li></ul>
  17. 24. What if the information isn't there? <ul><li>Sometimes, the necessary information won't all be there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very common problem with websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>just put as much as you can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>every extra bit makes it easier to find </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If possible, don't just give a URL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>URLs can change over time! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Citing in the text <ul><li>Inserted into your assignment to mark and acknowledge other people's ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>Refers back to the bibliography </li></ul>The Sheffield Hallam entry got the biggest round of applause (Williamson, 2008). WILLIAMSON, Manny (2008) University and schools heavy lift challenge 2008. [Online]. Last accessed 3rd March 2009 at: http://www.bmfa.org/unichallenge/2008/index.html
  19. 26. Citing <ul><li>Author's surname </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn't have to be in capitals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Year of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Just like first part of the reference </li></ul><ul><li>Expert judgements are necessary (Vernez and Vuille, 2009). </li></ul>Vernez and Vuille (2009) say that expert judgements are necessary.
  20. 27. Citing quotations, diagrams and images <ul><li>Need to include a page number to make it easier to find. </li></ul>(Vernez and Vuille, 2009, p386) &quot;Worse, as systems are becoming more and more specialised and dedicated, the availability of existing dependability data describing the performance of such systems is limited.&quot; (Vernez and Vuille, 2009, p382)
  21. 28. Refworks <ul><li>Refworks software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>downloading and storing references as you find them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating bibliographies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>best used as you do your research- not so helpful afterwards </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. Conclusion I <ul><li>Referencing acknowledges others' work </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing makes it possible for others to find the sources which you used </li></ul><ul><li>List all the materials you have used at the end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in alphabetical order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insert a citation whenever you use someone else's ideas, saying where you got it from </li></ul>
  23. 30. Conclusion II <ul><li>Author, Date, Title </li></ul><ul><li>Page number </li></ul><ul><li>Check title page for a book </li></ul><ul><li>Check start of article, top of page or database for a journal article </li></ul>

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