IntroductionRead the following sentences and see how the word fishing is beingused.In general, it is important to read the sentence and determine howthe word is being used, even though some words are strictly thoughtof as verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.I am fishing on Sunday.She has a fishing rod.Fishing is my favorite sport.verbadjectivenoun
NounsA noun names a person, place, thing, or idea.The cat chased the toy.Toby made macaroni for the picnic.The leaves on the plant are shriveling.The author discusses philosophy in her book on liberty.NounsGrammar Rock: Nouns! (3:00)
NounsNouns can be singular or plural. Plural nouns usually end in s or es.Three wolves howled at the moon.The library has thousands of books.The professor explained his beliefs.
NounsSome nouns, called collective nouns, are thought of as one unit. While it wouldsometimes be possible to count each individual person or item, the collective nounis considered as one.The committee meets on Wednesdays.Sand is in my bathing suit.A flock of birds is overhead.
Exercise 1: Identifying Collective Nouns Write the collective nouns ineach sentence in the blank at the right.1. A large crowd stood on the platform. _____________________2. On Thursday the army marched six miles. ____________________3. The club held a meeting at my house. _____________________4. Our family owns a house in the country. _____________________5. A herd of sheep grazed on the hillside. _____________________6. The orchestra tuned up before the concert. ____________________7. Mr. Ferguson spoke to our class. _____________________8. Gretchen is the president of our committee. ___________________9. The navy sailed three ships into the harbor. ___________________10. A large group went swimming at the lake. ____________________crowdarmyclubfamilyherdorchestraclasscommitteenavygroup
The post office is closed on Sundays. (separate words)Railroad crossings can be dangerous to those who don’t pay attention.(combined words)My sister-in-law married my brother three years ago. (hyphenated words)A compound noun is made up of two or more words. The words used togetherform a new word with a different meaning. They are written in three ways: withseparate words, combined words, or hyphenated words.
Exercise 2: Identifying Compound Nouns Underline the commonnouns in each sentence.1. Large tomatoes are growing in our backyard.2. My great-grandfather is living with us.3. A new high school was built last year.4. Suddenly the doorknob began to turn slowly.5. The racehorse ran like the wind.6. I left angry, but I exercised self-control.7. There are three lifeguards at the beach this summer.8. The stars lie many light-years away.9. Two astronauts were flying in the landing-craft.10. My bedroom is located at the end of the hall.
NounsIt is important to determine whether the noun is singular or plural. If a noun is plural,it will take a plural verb form; if a noun is singular, it will take a singular verb form.The officer approaches the jail.singularsingularMany lions hunt at night.plural pluralWill Alberto and Maria go to the party?plural plural
NounsA noun will be either common or proper; it cannot be both.Nouns can be broken into numerous categories.ProperA proper noun is the name of a person, organization, official document, holiday,etc. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter.CommonA common noun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea in general. A commonnoun is capitalized only if it is the first word of the sentence.Common vs. Proper Nouns (3:41)
Exercise 3: Identifying Common and Proper Nouns Underline thecommon nouns in the sentences below. Circle the proper nouns.1. I’ve just read a play by Shakespeare.2. The Drama Club elected a new president.3. Soon our family plans to visit Miami.4. A new house is being built on Elm Street.5. My father has been transferred to Colorado.6. She named her new dog Max.7. Have you ever seen the Statue of Liberty?8. My favorite holiday is Thanksgiving.9. My brother went climbing in the Rocky Mountains.10. I have pictures of Niagara Falls.
NounsA noun will either be concrete or abstract; it cannot be both.The puppy chewed my shoes.Every time Maria cooks, the kitchen smells like garlic.As quickly as the thought entered her mind, it vanished.Depression affects millions of Americans.ConcreteA concrete noun names a person or thing that you can perceive with one ofyour senses (touch, smell, hearing, taste, sight).AbstractAn abstract noun is the opposite of a concrete noun—it cannot be observed byyour senses.Grammar Time: Mission Noun (3:58)
NounsNouns can be possessive. A noun takes an apostrophe + s to show that it ownssomething. The apostrophe means of the or belongs to. In these examples, only thepossessive nouns are italicized.Shannon’s car wouldn’t start this morning.the car belongs to ShannonThe play will be held on Tuesday at the children’s party.The mayor’s speech was full of lies.the party belonging to the childrenthe speech of the mayor
Nouns ExerciseLook at the underlined noun in each sentence and decide which groups it belongs to.In the first blank, mark a C for common or P for proper; in the second blank, markan A for abstract or a C for concrete; in the third blank, mark an S for singular or aP for plural.1. __ __ __ The workers poured wet cement.2. __ __ __ Collette worked on the project all night.3. __ __ __ I had a notion that she was telling the truth.4. __ __ __ It is difficult to explain my desires.5. __ __ __ Carlos sent her flowers for her birthday.C C SP C SC A SNouns ExerciseC A PC C P
Nouns Exercise6. __ __ __ Senator Clark is running for re-election.7. __ __ __ Nail polish is on sale this week at the pharmacy.8. __ __ __ Get a broom from the closet, please.9. __ __ __ People all over the world want peace.10. __ __ __ Her family takes vacations in Hawaii.P C SC C SC C SC A SC C SNouns Exercise (cont.)The Noun Song (2:58)
PronounsPronounsRead the following sentences:Ava works in a store where Ava gets to meet interesting customers.Candace, Thomas, and Gregory are visiting relatives in Colorado. When Candace,Thomas, and Gregory return, I will have Candace, Thomas, and Gregory call Mr.Ramos back.These sentences are long and boring because the nouns are repeated. To avoidrepeating a noun, a pronoun can be used instead.Ava works in a store where she gets to meet interesting customers.Candace, Thomas, and Gregory are visiting relatives in Colorado. When theyreturn, I will have them call Mr. Ramos back.
PronounsLook at the following sentence:Jacob met with Natalie, and then Jacob met with Will.To avoid repeating “Jacob,” use the pronoun he.Jacob met with Natalie, and then he met with Will.The pronoun them could substitute for the names “Natalie” and “Will.”Jacob met with them.To avoid using names altogether, the pronouns he and them could be used. (Weshould do this only if we know who “he” and “them” are from previous sentences.)He met with them.
PronounsPronouns allow you to write shorter sentences and use less repetition. There aredifferent pronouns in English, depending on the noun and its location:I, you, he, she, it, we, and they are used as subjects.Me, you, him, her, it, us, and them are used as objects.My/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, its, our/ours, and their/theirs are possessivepronouns.Pronouns can also end in self or selves, one, or body (e.g., myself, ourselves,someone, anybody, etc.)Grammar Rock: PRONOUNS!
PronounsAntecedentsThe word or group of words a pronoun replaces is called an antecedent.The firefighters described how they did their job.Finally, the rescue worker reappeared. She appeared to be unharmed.
Exercise 1: Identifying Pronouns and Antecedents Underline the personalpronoun in each sentence. Then circle its antecedents.1. The explorers sailed their ship across the Pacific.2. Bill left his homework on the bus.3. Where are you going, Bob?4. The champion skater always performed on his newest skates.5. The woman washed her car every week.6. The actors practiced their parts at rehearsal.7. Two deer led their young to the river.8. The bicycle is yours, Martha.9. When the astronaut landed his spaceship, the sun had already set.10. A large sheepdog buries its bones behind the barn.
Fill in the sentences with pronouns:__________ asked ________ to dance.________ said “No,” because ________ was too shy.Now __________ is dancing with ________._______ feels bad for _______.She meHeIshe himImePronounsPronoun Problems (2:05)
PronounsPersonal PronounsPersonal pronouns are either singular or plural. Personal pronouns refer to theperson speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person), or the person,place, thing, or idea spoken about (third person).SINGULAR PLURALFIRST PERSONSECOND PERSONTHIRD PERSONI, me, my, mine we, us, our,oursyou, your, yours you, your, yourshe, him, hisshe, her, hersit, itsthey, themtheir, theirsPersonal Pronouns Song
PronounsDemonstrative PronounsPronouns such as this, that, these, and those point out a specificperson, place or thing. BUT BE CAREFUL!! If a noun follows one of these words,the word is no longer considered a pronoun. For example:Give me that. that is a pronounGive me that pencil. that is not a pronounRead the following sentence:Give the ball to Kisha.To substitute for “Kisha,” use the pronoun her. Give the ball to her.To substitute for “ball,” use the pronoun that. Give that to Kisha.Both nouns can be substituted: Give that to her.NOTE: When a noun follows an demonstrative pronoun, that pronoun becomes an adjective!
PronounsInterrogative PronounsThe pronouns what, which, who, whom, and whose are interrogative pronouns.An interrogative pronoun is used to begin a question.What did the doctor say?Which is the best treatment?NOTE: All four demonstrative pronouns begin with a “T”!All five interrogative pronouns begin with a “W”!Where did I put my homework?
Exercise 2: Distinguishing Between Demonstrative and InterrogativePronouns Write whether each underlined word is a demonstrative orinterrogative pronoun.1. What are we eating for dinner? _____________________________2. This is the present I gave my mother. ________________________3. Of all my courses, that is my best. ___________________________4. What is your name? ________________________________5. Which is your house? ________________________________6. These belong to the band. ________________________________7. Of all the flowers, which bloom earliest in spring? _______________8. Whose is that bicycle in the driveway? _______________________9. Those were painted by Monet. _____________________________10. He said these are the world’s smallest birds. _________________interrogativedemonstrativedemonstrativeinterrogativeinterrogativedemonstrativeinterrogativeinterrogativedemonstrativedemonstrativeIt Aint Nothin But a Pronoun
Pronouns Out of Place: Fix the sentences below that have been confused by themisplacement of a relative pronoun. Rewrite each sentence on the line provided.1. The trainer turned to the crowd and said, “We need someone to jump into thetank with Boris the shark, who is absolutely odorless.”2. Julio bought cotton candy from a girl at the fair that was way too sweet.3. I’d like to hire someone to feed and train our horse who doesn’t smoke.4. Never trust a lady with a dog who walks everywhere in high heels.5. At the race track, I saw a horse which was oval shaped and 300 yards wide.6. I met two men carrying smoked fish who wore chrome-plated sunglasses.The trainer turned to the crowd and said, “We need someone who isabsolutely odorless to jump into the tank with Boris the shark.”Julio bought cotton candy that was way too sweet from a girl at the fair.I’d like to hire someone who doesn’t smoke to feed and train our horse.Never trust a lady who walks everywhere in high heels with a dog.At the race track which was oval shaped and 300 yards wide, I saw a horse.I met two men who wore chrome-plated sunglasses carrying smoked fish.
PronounsIndefinite PronounsAn indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that is notspecifically named. BUT BE CAREFUL!!! If a noun follows one of thesewords, the words is no longer considered a pronoun. For example:NOTE: When a noun follows an indefinite pronoun, that pronoun becomes an adjective!Both want to be nurses. Both is a pronounBoth is not a pronounBoth students want to be nurses.
PronounsIndefinite PronounsWrite some examples of indefinite pronouns from the following chart:SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR OR PLURALanotheranybodyanyoneanythingeacheithereverybodyeveryoneeverythinglittlemuchneithernobodyno onenothingoneothersomebodysomeonesomethingbothfewmanyothersseveralallanymoremostnonesome
Ex. 3: Identifying Indefinite Pronouns1. We want everybody to have fun at the party.2. Neither of the trails looks difficult to climb.3. He knew none of the answers on the test.4. Somebody left a window open, and rain came in during the storm.5. Karen gave each of the kittens a dish of food.6. Several of these homes were built centuries ago.7. Something tells me that we are going to have a problem.8. Most of the team members have already boarded the bus.9. We can accomplish little unless we work together.10. Nothing succeeds like success.PronounsNuma Numa Pronoun Challenge(3:43)
Pronouns ExercisePronounsExerciseRead the following sets of sentences and put the appropriate pronoun in the blank.1. Sandra likes to paint and draw; in fact, ______ are ______ favorite activities.______ makes portraits of ______ by looking into a mirror.2. My wife and ______ are taking ______ kids and their friends to the circus.Since they have never been to a circus before, ______ are excited. ______ willall be leaving around five.those herShe herselfI ourthey We
3. The boy complained to ______ mother about stomach pains. “______ tummyhurts,” ______ said to ______. Then, ______ gave ______ some medicine.“______ tasted awful,” he said.Pronouns Exercisehimhisshehe herThatMyPronouns Exercise (cont.)4. A man driving a Volvo hit ______ from behind while ______ was stopped at ared light. ______ drove off. I hope ________ witnessed the accident so ______can present more evidence to police.5. “I want the rosebush over there because ______ leaves are bright green and______ has many buds,” Kendra said. “Will ______ please get it for ______?”______ asked a worker at the nursery. “I’m on ______ break,” he replied.itsit you memysheme IHe someone I