Chapter15 Immigration and Urbanization


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Chapter15 Immigration and Urbanization

  1. 1. Chapter 15:Immigrants and Urbanization<br />
  2. 2. Four immigrants and their belongings, on a dock, looking out over the water.<br />(view from Ellis Island, 1912)<br />
  3. 3. Immigrants arrive in New York in 1850. <br />Millions of people immigrated to the United States during the last half of the 1800s and the first half of the 1900s. <br />
  4. 4. Arriving in New York<br />An ocean steamer carries immigrants past the Statue of Liberty<br />A gift from the French, the Statue of Liberty came to symbolize the freedom and hope of America [Library of Congress]<br />
  5. 5. Arrival of Immigrants 1892 - 1954<br />What do these images tell you about the immigrants? What impressions do you have about the people in these pictures?<br />What happens after they land in America? <br />
  6. 6. European Immigrants<br /><ul><li>Prior to 1890, most immigrants came from countries in western and northern Europe
  7. 7. England, Ireland, Germany and Scandinavian countries
  8. 8. Beginning in the 1890s, increasing numbers came from southern and eastern Europe
  9. 9. Italy, Austria-Hungary and Russia</li></li></ul><li>Why leave homeland?<br /><ul><li>Escape religious persecution (e.g. Jews in Russia)
  10. 10. Rising population (made land for farming scarce)
  11. 11. Farmers competed with laborers for jobs
  12. 12. Reform and revolt in Europe made many young Europeans start a new life in America</li></li></ul><li>Why come to America?<br /><ul><li>Reputation for plentiful jobs and land to farm
  13. 13. U.S. business people went to Europe to spread tales of “rags to riches” stories, and some even suggested that the roads were paved with gold in the U.S.</li></li></ul><li>Chinese Immigrants<br /><ul><li>Chinese came to the West Coast (some sought fortunes during the gold rush)
  14. 14. Less opportunities in China to make money
  15. 15. Railroads, farming, mining, domestic service, some started businesses
  16. 16. Immigration sharply limited by Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882</li></li></ul><li>Japanese in Hawaii<br /><ul><li>Japanese recruited by U.S. businessmen to work on Hawaiian plantations
  17. 17. When Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898, Japanese began immigrating to the West Coast
  18. 18. Higher wages in the U.S. than in Japan</li></li></ul><li>West Indies and Mexico<br /><ul><li>Immigrants from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc.
  19. 19. Job scarce in their homeland, and plentiful in the U.S.
  20. 20. During 20-yr. period in the early 1900s, 7% of Mexico’s population came to the U.S.
  21. 21. Worked in the new farmland in the Western states
  22. 22. Political and social upheavals in Mexico</li></li></ul><li>Immigrant’s Journey<br /><ul><li>Most immigrants traveled by steamship (approx. 1 week from Europe, and 3 weeks from China)
  23. 23. Many traveled in steerage, the cheapest accommodations in the lower decks
  24. 24. Immigrants were crowded together, unable to exercise or catch a breath of fresh air (disease spread and some immigrants died on route)</li></li></ul><li>Medical Inspection at Ellis Island<br /><ul><li>Processing location for immigrants in New York harbor
  25. 25. Immigrants had to pass a physical exam, and diseased individuals were sent home</li></ul>Passing the Medical Inspection at Ellis Island (Video Clip)<br />
  26. 26. Legal Inspection at Ellis Island<br /><ul><li>A government inspector checked for criminal history
  27. 27. Made sure the immigrant would be able to work
  28. 28. Also to see if they had some money (at least $25 after 1909)</li></li></ul><li>Angel Island<br /><ul><li>Asians arriving at the West Coast were processed at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay
  29. 29. Between 1910 and 1940, about 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered the U.S. through Angel Island</li></li></ul><li>Life in the New Land<br /><ul><li>Immigrants tended to live among their own ethnic and religious groups
  30. 30. Shared values/culture
  31. 31. Pooled resources for churches/synagogues.
  32. 32. Spoke same language
  33. 33. Formed social clubs and societies</li></li></ul><li>New Americans or Outsiders?<br />Class Activity<br />“You Have to Live in Somebody Else’s Country to Understand”<br />
  34. 34. Nativism<br />
  35. 35. Nativism<br /><ul><li>Belief that native-born, Anglo-Saxon Americans were superior to immigrants
  36. 36. Immigration Restriction League - objected to immigrants from the “wrong” countries (Latin, Slav, Asian groups)
  37. 37. American Protective Association - made up of native-born protestants who feared Catholics and Jews would ruin democracy. Jews and Catholics restricted from colleges, businesses</li></li></ul><li>Nativism<br /><ul><li>Immigration Restriction League - objected to immigrants from the “wrong” countries (Latin, Slav, Asian groups)
  38. 38. Pressured to pass a bill requiring a literacy test for immigrants (vetoed by Pres. Cleveland, but set a precedent</li></li></ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act<br /><ul><li>Nativists on the West Coast feared the Chinese would take jobs away from native-born residents because the Chinese would accept lower wages
  39. 39. Passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act by Congress in 1882
  40. 40. Only students, teachers, merchants, tourists and government officials were allowed into the country from China</li></li></ul><li>Gentlemen’s Agreement<br /><ul><li>Japanese school children were segregated in 1906 in San Francisco
  41. 41. President Theodore Roosevelt created the Gentlemen’s Agreement in 1907
  42. 42. It indicated the Japanese government would stop allowing unskilled laborers to emigrate to the U.S. and San Francisco agreed to stop segregating school children</li></li></ul><li>Critical Thinking Activity<br />Political Cartoon Analysis<br />