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  1. 1. Control 1. Establishment of goals and standards. 2. Measurement of actual performance against standards. 3. Corrective action. 4. Follow through action.
  2. 2. FEEDBACK Feedback is the process of adjusting future actions based upon the information about past performance It is based upon inter-dependence of different parts of a system
  3. 3. FEEDback vs feedFORWARD
  4. 4. FEEDFORWARD This shows that the control should be future-directed to be effective the information is late and the rectification is not possible. One can only refer to the data and make corrections for the future.
  5. 5. FEEDFORWARD versusFEEDBACK Feedforward control may prove to be much more efficient than Feedback. This does not imply that leaders should never give feedback or that performance appraisals should be abandoned. Quality communication—between and among people at all levels—is the adhesive that holds organizations together. By using feedforward and by encouraging others to use it—leaders can dramatically improve the quality of communication in their organizations.
  6. 6. • There are several ways to measure student growth year-to-year• The Progress Reports have historically compared a student’s proficiency this year to his proficiency last year to make a growth determination• This growth measurement creates the right incentive for every student (i.e., maximize growth), but does not fully account for the contours of the performance-progress relationship; specifically more low performing students make one year of progress than high performing students Not proficient Proficient Percenta ge of students making one year 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 of Performance 4.0• progress Other districts have chosen different ways to measure student growth; in particular, Colorado has adopted a growth model that has been approved by the U.S. DOE which uses growth percentiles• Growth percentiles, as we’ll show in the presentation, represent the next generation of student progress measurement, as they control for each student’s starting proficiency• New York State has openly expressed an interest in learning more about the Colorado model as it seeks to adopt its own growth model; this may present an opportunity for NYC and NYS to align their school evaluations for Elementary/Middle Schools over time
  7. 7. 8Growth percentiles control for a student’sstarting proficiency Assume there were 1,000 students who scored a 3.0 in 3rd grade; we could then rank each student’s improvement based on his/her growth percentile 3rd grade 4th grade Illustrative 4 3.7 (90th percentile) A student who … progresses from 3.4 (70th percentile) 3.0 to 3.4 would 3 … be in the 70th 3.0 3.0 (35th percentile) … percentile for all 2 students who 2.4 (10th percentile) started with a proficiency rating 1 of 3.0 in 3rd grade 8