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Papaya production technilogy

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PAPAYA
Botanical name - Carica papaya
Family - Caricaceae
Chemical constituents in papaya fruits
• Moisture - 89.6
• Carbohydrate - 9.5
• Proteins - 0.5
• Fat - 0.1
• Calorific value - 4 ( in 100 grams)
• Minerals - 0.4
• Calcium - 0.01
• Iron (mg / 100 g) - 0.4
• Vitamins (mg / 100g) -
• Carotene (Vit. A)(IU / 100g) - 2020
• Thiamine (Vit B1) - 40
• Riboflavin (Vit B2) - 250
• Nicotinic acid - 0.2
• Ascorbic acid (Vit C ) - 46
BOTANY
• Polygamous
• Three types of flowers
• 1. Staminate ( Male )
• 2. Pistillate ( Female )
• 3. Hermaphrodite ( Bisexual )
INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWERS
• Male trees - Flowers are in clusters on long
branches 60-90cm
Individual male flower is tubular,
with ten stamens attached to the
corolla in two series.
• Female trees - Female flowers are on short 4-6cm
peduncles petals are separate.
• Hermaphrodite trees.
- There are numerous deviations, flower is
on short peduncle elongated pistil.
Petals are fused upto 2/3 of their length.
Ten stamens in two series of five.
Papaya production technilogy
Environmental influence of flowers
mainly temperature is responsible
• Stamen carpellopy is expressed under cool temperatures.
( in this case instead of 10 stamens there are only 5)
Reason - low temperatures below 13 * C.
• Excessive N & moisture
• Female sterility
Cause - Excessive high temperature, N deficiency &
moisture stress
• Hermaphrodite trees
• >32degree C High temperature – behaves like male
Low temperature – behaves like female
Very low temperature - carpellodic fruits.
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Papaya production technilogy

  • 1. PAPAYA Botanical name - Carica papaya Family - Caricaceae
  • 2. Chemical constituents in papaya fruits • Moisture - 89.6 • Carbohydrate - 9.5 • Proteins - 0.5 • Fat - 0.1 • Calorific value - 4 ( in 100 grams) • Minerals - 0.4 • Calcium - 0.01 • Iron (mg / 100 g) - 0.4 • Vitamins (mg / 100g) - • Carotene (Vit. A)(IU / 100g) - 2020 • Thiamine (Vit B1) - 40 • Riboflavin (Vit B2) - 250 • Nicotinic acid - 0.2 • Ascorbic acid (Vit C ) - 46
  • 3. BOTANY • Polygamous • Three types of flowers • 1. Staminate ( Male ) • 2. Pistillate ( Female ) • 3. Hermaphrodite ( Bisexual )
  • 4. INFLORESCENCE AND FLOWERS • Male trees - Flowers are in clusters on long branches 60-90cm Individual male flower is tubular, with ten stamens attached to the corolla in two series. • Female trees - Female flowers are on short 4-6cm peduncles petals are separate. • Hermaphrodite trees. - There are numerous deviations, flower is on short peduncle elongated pistil. Petals are fused upto 2/3 of their length. Ten stamens in two series of five.
  • 6. Environmental influence of flowers mainly temperature is responsible • Stamen carpellopy is expressed under cool temperatures. ( in this case instead of 10 stamens there are only 5) Reason - low temperatures below 13 * C. • Excessive N & moisture • Female sterility Cause - Excessive high temperature, N deficiency & moisture stress • Hermaphrodite trees • >32degree C High temperature – behaves like male Low temperature – behaves like female Very low temperature - carpellodic fruits.
  • 7. Depending on the types of flowers present on a tree. Papayas are classified into eight categories.
  • 8. Types of papaya flowers Types Tree Flower Description Staminate M M Typical unisexual flower on long peduncles Teratological M M Found on sex-reversing male tree, Staminate with some degree of carpel initiation and development, A number of hair-like processes – vestigial carpellate base Reduced MF M Modified normal elongata flower differs from staminate flowers in having a thicker and stiffer corolla tube, abortion of pistils and reduced ovary size and number of carpels. More frequent during warm periods and late summer, and can last from 1 – 2 weeks to 6 months, depending upon cultivar and temperature.
  • 9. Pure male plant ( M1rr m )
  • 10. Sex reversing male ( M1Rr m )
  • 11. Sex reversing male ( M1RR m)
  • 12. Types of papaya flowers Types Tree Flower Description Elongata MF MF Elongata refers to the shape of the pistil (normal type) terminating in fine stigmata lobes ; develops into pyriform or cylindrical fruit, five laterally fused carpels. Petals fused two-thirds length. Carpelloid MF F Transformation of the inner series of Elongata stamens into carpel-like structure. Numerous types with different number of stamens becoming carpelloid and degree of carpellody, from slight to developing locales with functional stigma. Fruit to varying degrees misshaped.
  • 13. Types of papaya flowers Types Tree Flower Description Pentandria MF F Normal hermaphrodite type, modified unisexual pistillate flower, through stepwise stamen transformation to carpels, with loss of the original carpels. Short corolla tube, only five stamens of the outer whorl on long filaments globose and furrowed pistill. From five to ten carpels. Carpelloid MF F The stamens of the outer whorl become Pentandria carpelloid. Carpellodic forms in various stage, especially under cool conditions. All five stamens fully carpelloid and fuse laterally, with abortion of original carpels, flowers resemble pistillate flowers- pseudo – pistillate.
  • 14. Types of papaya flowers Types Tree Flower Description Pistillate F F Unisexual flowers larger than MF flower, lack stamens. Form stable and unchanged by environment.
  • 15. GENERAL DESCRIPTION • Single erect stem may attain height upto 9 mtrs. • Multiple branching only when growing tip is disturbed. • After transplanting shoot growth is slow. • Root growth is rapid in the initial stage. • After 25 days of transplanting stem growth rate increases and goes upto 2mm per day in circumference. • Growth rate is depended on • Nitrogen • Phosphorus • Irrigation • Temperature • Floral primordia is laid 50 – 70 days prior to anthesis at the rate of one flower every three days.
  • 16. Growth Rate of Root and stem • The growth rate of papaya root and stem from planting in the field, showing root growth-rate reduction at the start of flowering and shoot growth as fruit mature.
  • 17. LEAVES • Rate of emergence 2-3 per week • Cool season 2.4 leaves per week • Warm season 3 leaves per week • Length of leaves 60-90 cm
  • 18. Growth & development • Seed germination Two weeks • Flowering starts after a fixed no. of leaves have appeared. • This varies from variety to variety from 24 to 49.
  • 19. Pollination & Fruit set • Female & hermaphrodite varieties • There is no pollination problem. • Pollination problem occurs when dioecious varieties are planted with inadequate number of male plants. • Ratio of male to female should be 1:10 • On hermaphrodite trees it is common for the terminal flowers to set while the lateral flowers abcise. • Under favourable conditions one or two lateral flowers also set.
  • 20. FRUIT • Fruits of females trees are spherical • Fruits of hermaphrodite trees show diverse shapes normally elongated. • Fruit size varies from 255 grams to 7 kgs, flesh thickness varies from 1.5 to 4 cms. • Fruit cavity may be star shaped or round - good variety small fruit cavity. • Seedlessness Seen on female plants when fruit is set in absence of pollens but seedless fruits are small in size. • Fruit Growth Total period varies from 150 – 160 days Fruit growth shows two major phases 1st is 60 - 80 days after anthesis. 2nd 100 ~ 120 days.
  • 21. Changes in Fruit • Changes in fruit starch and total sugar of developing ‘Solo’ papaya fruit. Note the dramatic increase in sugars during the last phase of fruit development.
  • 22. Fruit Growth Rate • The increase in fruit fresh mass and the mass for skin, seeds and mesocarp during fruit development.
  • 23. Cultural Practices • Propagation is done by seeds. • Two methods 1. Direct sowing. 2. Transplanting. Seed count 50 – 70 per gramme Transplant Production Depth of sowing – Twice the diameter of the seed. Time of germination : 13 – 16 days. Nursery bag size : 6” x 8” Colour of bag – Black Height of transplanting : 8” – 10” Protection of nursery by insect proof net against - sucking pests Use preventive chemicals for Ants and Damping off. Nursery fertilization - 50 : 50 : 50 N : P : K
  • 24. Field Preparation Standard land preparation practices 1. Sub soiling. 2. Ploughing. 3. Discing. 4. Bed Preparation. Pit Digging – 30 – 45 Cms in diameter. 30 – 45 Cms deep. Fertilizers – Added to the pit. Mixed with soil.
  • 25. Spacing • Depending upon the variety • 40 ~ 70 sq ft. per plant is required.
  • 26. Transplanting • Transplant at the same level as in nursery bag. • Water liberally after planting, there should be no air spaces. • Transplanting at an angle of 45 degree leads to fruiting at lower height (If leaf touches the soil it can be removed.)
  • 27. Response of Irrigation on fruit yield • Relation between yield of marketable fruit and the water application as a fraction of potential pan evaporation.
  • 28. Irrigation • Crop factor • Young tree - 0.3 ~ 0.4 • Upon flowering - 0.5 ~ 0.6 • Fruit set start - 0.8 ~ 0.9 • After 20 – 25 fruits - 1.10 ~ 1.30
  • 29. Fertilization Nutrient removal per ton • Nitrogen - 1770 grams. • Phosphate - 200 grams. • Potash - 2120 grams. • Calcium - 350 grams. • Magnesium - 180 grams. • Sulphur - 200 grams.
  • 30. Relative Nutrient Requirement • N - Very high • P - Medium • K - Medium • Ca - Medium • Mg - High • S - Medium • B - Low • Cu - Medium • Fe - High • Mn - Medium • Zn - Medium
  • 31. Standard plant tissue analysis • ( Petiole analysis ) • Fully grown leaf. • N - 1.10 ~ 1.40% • P - 0.15 ~ 0.18% • K - 2.5 ~ 3.5%
  • 32. Weed Management • Hand weeding near the plants. • Herbicide sprays in the other portion. • Paraquat @ 1 Litre / acre. • Glyphosate @ 1.5 Litre / acre.
  • 33. Harvesting • Small trees by hand. • Tall trees by help of ladders or harvesting aid. • Labour efficiency for harvesting • 360 ~ 450kg / in 8 hours • Bruising of fruits should be avoided.
  • 34. Labour requirement • Nursery growing - 20 mandays • Planting (without pit digging) - 20 • Weeding - 30 • Irrigation & Fertigation - 30 • Harvesting - 100 • Grading & Packing - 60 • Clearing of land - 50 • Miscellaneous - 50 ------------- 360 mandays
  • 35. Alternaria fruit spot • Alternaria fruit spot on papaya.
  • 36. Alternaria Fruit Spot • Fungus infects drying leaf petioles & fruit surface. • Disease comes during dry environments. • Control : 1. Sprays of chlorothalonil and mancozeb 2. Post harvest dip of fruits in hot water for 20 minutes at 48 degree C.
  • 37. Anthracnose • Typical chocolate spot lesion caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
  • 39. Anthracnose • Major damage is done after harvest during long distance transport and storage under low temperature. • Disease of ripe and over ripe fruits. • Favourable conditions High temperature > 28degree C. High humidity > 97 % R.H. Free water is necessary for spore germination Control 1. Protective fungicides at 14 or 28 days interval during rainy season. 2. Post harvest - Hot water dip.
  • 40. Cercospora Black Spot • Cercospora black spot on ripe Kapoho Solo papaya.
  • 41. Cercospora Black Spot • Spot Occurs on fruit and leaves. • Fruits are susceptible from 5-6 weeks of age. • Control protective fungicide sprays at 14-28 days interval.
  • 42. Dry Rot • Dry rot caused by Mycosphaerlla sp. Is the most common cause of stem-end rot of papayas in Hawaii.
  • 43. Dry Rot • Symptoms post harvest stem end rot. • Fungus survives and multiplied on dead leaves and fallen fruits. • Conditions for spread of fungus 100% R.H. • Condition for infection – wounding of fruits • Control 1. Fungicide sprays. 2. Hot water dip 3. Sanitation.
  • 44. Poor Field Sanitation • Field sanitation, such as the removal of fallen fruit from the field, is essential to minimize disease build- up, especially in a fruit crop with continuous production, such as papaya.
  • 45. Fusarium Fruit Rot • Fusarium rot on a papaya fruit.
  • 46. Fusarium Fruit Rot • Causes lesions on fruits. • Fruit drop. • Seedling collar rot. • Control : Preventive fungicide sprays. Hot water dip.
  • 47. Phytophthora Fruit Rot & Root Rot • Phytophthora blight of papaya fruits. Note mycelium of casual fungus, Phytophthora palmivora, which covers the fruits.
  • 48. Phytophthora Fruit Rot & Root Rot • Severe damage to papaya trees caused by Phytophth ora palmivora.
  • 49. Phytophthora Fruit Rot & Root Rot • Root rot of papaya seedings caused by Phytophtho ra palmivora.
  • 50. Phytophthora Fruit Rot & Root Rot • Heavy fruit losses during rainy season severe decline and death of papaya trees in poorly drained areas. • Fruits show water soaked lesions that exude milky latex. • Fruits shrivel and fall to the ground. • Leaf fall. • Cankers on stem. • Trees become stunted. • Death of tree.
  • 51. Phytophthora Fruit Rot & Root Rot • Critical stage 1st three months after emergence. • Yellowing of leaves. • Premature defoliation. • Death. • As the plant passes this age it becomes resistant to root rot. • Control 1. Fruit rot – Protective mancozeb and basic copper sulphate spray on fruit column. 2. Root rot – New soil used in planting pet ( Avoids infection in susceptible stage ) < 3 months. 3. Proper drainage. 4. Mulching.
  • 52. Powdery Mildew • Predisposing factors 1. Low light. 2. High humidity. 3. Moderate temperature. Symptoms 1. Defoliation of older leaves. 2. Stem and fruit lesions. Control : 1. Wettable sulphur. 2. Systemic fungicides like thio phanate methyl triademefon etc.
  • 53. Rhizopus Soft Rot • Rhizopus soft rot of papaya fruit .
  • 54. Rhizopus Soft Rot • Post harvest disease. • Reasons : Wounding of fruits. High humidity and temperature during transit. Control : 1. Sanitation. 2. Proper handling. 3. Heat treatment of fruits. 4. Preventive field fungicide sprays.
  • 55. Papaya ringspot virus. • Characteristic ring spots on papaya fruit caused by papaya ringspot virus.
  • 56. Papaya ringspot virus • Mosaic symptoms on papaya foliage caused by papaya ringspot virus.
  • 57. Papaya ringspot virus • Oily streak pattern on papaya stem caused by papaya ringspot virus.
  • 58. Papaya ringspot virus • Shoestring symptom on papaya foliage caused by papaya ringspot virus.
  • 59. Papaya ringspot virus • Secondary spread of papaya ringspot can devastate an orchard.
  • 60. VIRAL DISEASES Papaya Ringspot Casual Agent - Papaya ring spot virus Host range - Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Chenopodiaceae Synonyms - Papaya mosaic Papaya distortion ring spot Symptoms On fruits - Dark green slightly sunken rings uneven bumps on fruits rings becomes less distinct as fruits ripens. On leaf - Yellow mosaic on leaf, shoestring appearance. On stem - Oily streaks on stem.
  • 61. VIRAL DISEASES Papaya Ringspot • Symptoms appear 3 weeks after inoculation • Spread by – Aphids ( Non persistent manner ) • - not seed transmitted. • Control 1. Roguing. 2. Clean cultivation. 3. Protection of nursery. 4. Interplanting with non host crop – corn. 5. Cross protection. 6. Crop rotation.
  • 62. Root-knot nematodes. • Galls on roots of papaya caused by root-knot nematodes.
  • 63. Nematodes Root knot nematodes • Crop rotation. • Solarization with plastic mulch. • Nematicide.
  • 64. Carpellodic fruit • Papaya fruit column with numerous carpellodic fruit.
  • 65. Carpellodic fruit • Stamen carpellody induced by environmental conditions (temperature, water strees, fertilization) on young hermaphrodite trees significantly alters fruit shape. The mild forms are sometimes referred to as ‘cat face’.
  • 66. Carpellody • Papaya fruit column with numerous carpellodic fruit.
  • 67. Carpellody Hermaphrodite varieties when exposed to 1. Low temperatures. 2. High nitrogen. 3. High moisture. The male parts ( stamens ) develop into carpel like structure and form fruits which are severly deformed.
  • 68. Boron deficiency. • Symptoms of bumpy fruit caused by boron deficiency.
  • 69. Bumpy Fruit Cause - Boron deficiency • Petiole analysis - < 20 ppm shows bumpy fruit normal level > 25 ppm • Control - 0.25% Boron spray on foliage or apply 1kg. Elemental boron to soil / acre.
  • 70. Fruit - fly • Fruit-fly larvae damage of ripe papaya. This group of insects attacks many tropical fruit and may require post harvest disinfestation treatments before export to some markets.
  • 71. Insect Disinfestation • Postharvest insect disinfestation requires treatment in chambers similar to the one shown, in which the fruit is subjected to temperatures up to 50c at high relative humidity for 6-8h.