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Problem Analysis: Three Job Aids to Find the Root Cause of Problems

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Learn about 3 root cause job aids and how expert analysts think.

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Problem Analysis: Three Job Aids to Find the Root Cause of Problems

  1. 1. PROBLEM ANALYSIS: THREE JOB AIDS TO FIND THE ROOT CAUSE OF PROBLEMS Sandra A. Rogers
  2. 2. 1. DEFINITION OF PROBLEM ANALYSIS 2. DEFINITION OF ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS 3. THINK LIKE AN EXPERT ANALYST 4. JOB AID: SANDERS & THIAGARAJAN’S SIX-BOX DIAGRAM 5. JOB AID: ISHIKAWA’S FISHBONE DIAGRAM 6. JOB AID: TOYODA’S WHY-TREE OUTLINE
  3. 3. Problem analysis is a systematic process of looking at the big picture. Problems can be negative, positive, or neutral.
  4. 4. Analysts use problem analysis to determine the structure of a problem, its root causes, performance gaps, and possible solutions. Problem Analysis
  5. 5. Root Cause Analysis Root Cause is the fundamental breakdown or trigger of a process which, when resolved, prevents a recurrence of the problem.
  6. 6. Critical Thinking Processes of Expert Analysts (Ertmer et al., 2008)
  7. 7. 1. STRUCTURE /PROCESS 2. RESOURCES 3. INFORMATION 4. KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS 5. MOTIVES 6. WELLNESS Categories for Performance Problems Sanders & Thiagarajan’s Six-Box Model, 2002
  8. 8. Ishikawa’s (1969) Fishbone Diagram
  9. 9. Toyoda’s (1958) Why-Tree for Root Cause Analysis Presenting Problem 1st Main Reason 2nd Main Reason Why? Why? More reason s More reason s More reason s More reason s Why? Root Cause Another Reason Another Reason Another Reason Another Reason Why? Why?
  10. 10. MATCH THE PERFORMANCE PROBLEM WITH THE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT CATEGORY Six-Box Model Activity
  11. 11. Summary Today we learned about different root cause job aids: Six-box model, Fishbone diagram, and the Why-Tree. Three important ideas to take away are:  Expert analysts form mental maps of the presenting problem(s),  Dig deep for the root cause to avoid superficial-level interventions, and  Root causes are fundamental breakdowns or triggers.
  12. 12. References  Binder, C. (1998). The six boxes-A descendant of Gilbert’s Behavior Engineering Model. Retrieved from http://www.binder- riha.com/sixboxes.html  Dunn, E. J. & Renner, C. Root cause analysis: Faculty development [PowerPoint]. VA National Center for Patient Safety. Retrieved from www.med.cornell.edu
  13. 13. Reference Continued  Ertmer, P. A., Stepich, D. A., York, C. S., Stickman, A., Wu, X., Zurek, S., & Goktas, Y. (2008). How instructional design experts use knowledge and experience to solve ill-structured problems. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(1), 91-95. doi:10.1002/piq.20013  Willmore, J. (2004). Performance basics. Baltimore, MD: ASTD Press.
  14. 14. Contact Sandra Rogers Instructional Design Specialist Library & Instructional Resource Services Burke Memorial Library, room 113 srogers@shc.edu 251-380-4480

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