Practical Use of BCI
People with spinal
Targeted for people with
People with acquired
blindness can get vision
a man with acquired
How virtual eye works
• EEGs measure tiny voltage potentials. The signal is
weak and prone to interference.
• Each neuron is constantly sending and receiving
signals through a complex web of connections. There
are chemical processes involved as well, which EEGs
can't pick up on.
• The equipment heavy & hence not portable.
• Enables people to communicate and control
appliances with use of brain signals
• Open gates for disabled people.
• Numerous future applications
 C. Guger, A. Schlögl, C. Neuper, D. Walterspacher, T. Strein, and G. Pfurtscheller, “Rapid
prototyping of an EEG-based brain-computer
interface (BCI),” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehab. Eng., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2001.
 G. Pfurtscheller, R. Leeb, C. Keinrath, D. Friedman, C. Neuper, C. Guger, and M. Slater, “Walking from thought,” Brain Res., vol. 1071, no. 1, pp.
 N.J. Hill, T.N. Lal, M. Schroder, T. Hinterberger, B. Wilhelm, F. Nijboer, U. Mochty, G. Widman, C. Elger, B. Scholkopf, A. Kubler, and N.
Birbaumer, “Classifying EEG and ECoG signals without subject training for fast BCI implementation: Comparison of nonparalyzed and completely
paralyzed subjects,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehab. Eng., vol. 14, pp. 183–186, June 2006.
 N. Weiskopf, K. Mathiak, S.W. Bock, F. Scharnowski, R. Veit, W. Grodd, R. Goebel, and N. Birbaumer, “Principles of a brain-computer interface
(BCI) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 51, pp. 966–970, June 2004.
 S.-S. Yoo, T. Fairneny, N.-K. Chen, S.-E. Choo, L.P. Panych, H. Park, S.-Y. Lee, and F.A. Jolesz, “Brain-computer interface using fMRI: Spatial
navigation by thoughts,” Neuroreport, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1591–1595, 2004.
 M. A. L. Nicolelis, “Actions from Thoughts,” Nature, vol. 409, pp.403-407, 2001
 X. Gao, X. Dignfeng, M. Cheng and S. Gao, “A BCI-based Environmental Controller for the Motion-Disabled,” IEEE Transactions on Neural
Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 137-140, 2003
 J. R. Mill´an, P. W. Ferrez and A. Buttfield, “Non Invasive Brain Machine Interfaces - Final report,” IDIAP Research Institute - ESA, 2005
 J. D. Bayliss, “Use of the Evoked Potential P3 Component for Control in a Virtual Environment,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and
Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 113-116, 2003
 J. L. Sirvent, J. M. Azor´ın, E. Ia´n˜ez, E., A. U´ beda and E. Ferna´ndez, “P300-based Brain-Computer Interface for Internet Browsing,” IEEE
International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (PAAMS), pp. 615-622, 2010
 E. Ia´n˜ez, J. M. Azor´ın, A. U´ beda, J. M. Ferra´ndez and E. Ferna´ndez, “Mental Tasks-Based Brain–Robot Interface,” Robotics and
Autonomous Systems, vol. 58(12), pp. 1238-1245, 2010
 G. Pfurtscheller and C. Neuper, “Motor Imagery and Direct Brain Computer Communication,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 89, pp. 1123-1134,
 F. Lotte, M. Congedo, A. L´ecuyer, F. Lamarche and B. Arnaldi, “A Review of Classification Algorithms for EEG-based Brain-Computer
Interfaces,” Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 1-13, 2007
 F. Cincotti et al., “High-resolution EEG Techniques for Brain Computer Interface Applications,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 167(1),
pp. 31-42, 2008
 R. T. Lauer, P. H. Peckham, K. L. Kilgore, andW. J. Heetderks, “Applications of cortical signals to neuroprosthetic control: A critical review,”
IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng., vol. 8, pp. 205–208, June 2000.
 G. Garcia, T. Ebrahimi, and J.-M. Vesin, “Classification of EEG signals in the ambiguity domain for brain-computer interface applications,” in
IEEE Int. Conf. Digit. Sig. Proc., Santorini, Greece, vol. 1, 1-3 July 2002, pp. 301-305.
 H. Ramoser, J. Muller-Gerking, and G. Pfurtscheller, “Optimal spatial filtering of single trial EEG during imagined hand movement,” IEEE
Trans. Rehab. Eng., vol. 8, pp. 441–446, Dec. 2000.
 B. Kotchoubey, D. Schneider, H. Schleichert, U. Strehl, C. Uhlmann, V. Blankenhorn, W. Froscher, and N. Birbaumer, “Self-regulation of slow
cortical potentials in epilepsy: A retrial with analysis of influencing factors,” Epilepsy Res., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 269–276, Nov. 1996.
For your attention