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Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System


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What is IS.
Change Management
Critical Success Factor
Next generation Balanced ScoreCard

Published in: Technology, Business
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Chap 6 IMplementation of Information System

  1. 1. Implementation of Information Systems Presented By: Sabina Shrestha (066 BCT 530)
  2. 2. What is IS?  An integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for delivering information, knowledge and digital products  A combination of hardware, software, infrastructure and trained personnel organized to facilitate planning, control, coordination, and decision making in an organization  Business firms and other organizations rely on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace
  3. 3. Features  Data • Data is information stored in its raw form.  People • Technical people are required to design database and programming.  Hardware • Web servers, routers, switches, LAN, firewall etc.  Software • DBMS, applications, programming languages etc.  Telecommunication • As networking technologies.
  4. 4. 6 Key Events Deciding on what to develop IS design and development IS evaluation and migration Managing user resistance Managing change IS maintenance
  5. 5. Types 1. Office Information Systems 2. Transaction Processing Systems 3. Management Information Systems 4. Decision Support Systems 5. Expert Systems 6. Integrated Information Systems
  6. 6. Examples 1. Data Warehouses 2. Enterprise Resource Planning 3. Enterprise Systems 4. Expert Systems 5. Search Engines 6. Geographic Information System 7. Global Information System 8. Office Automation
  7. 7. Implementation in Nepal Telecom  Use of computer and computer-based systems were started from 1984  To bring efficiency in day-to-day operation of telecom businesses like: Line Maintenance, Line installation, Billing, Cash Collection etc.  Computerization activities of NTC is divided into different subsystems to solve different areas of operation:  Service Division System (SDS),  Human Resource Management System (HRMS),  Inventory Control System(MI),  Financial System Division (FSD – Billing and Cash Collection)  General Accounting(GA).
  8. 8. Implementation in USA  AMIAAnnual Symposium Proceedings Archive  National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA  An integrated computerized patient record system  Form the infrastructure for the timely and accurate collection and exchange of data, information, and knowledge in healthcare organizations, and thus a more efficient use of scarce resources
  9. 9. Behavioral Science  Behavioral considerations in the design and implementation of information systems and in the management of IS professionals are crucial to the successful development and delivery of quality services to users  Implementation of IS may provide a beneficial means to facilitate changes in task design, organizational structure, and social relations  Guidance for interpreting past MIS behavioral research and suggestions for future studies are provided by a proposed research framework  The importance of adopting behavioral science research standards, e.g., theory-based research questions and appropriate methodology, is stressed
  10. 10. Assumptions  Organizations are socio-technical systems. The management must integrate both the systems  Work and interpersonal behavior of people in the organization is influenced by many factors  Employees are motivated not only by physiological needs but also by social and psychological needs  Different people have different perceptions, attitudes, needs and values. These differences must be found out and recognized by management  In an organization conflicts are unavoidable  Personal goals and Organizational goals must be joined together
  11. 11. Theories  Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Satisfy lower-level needs first.  James March and Herbert Simon - Communication is essential.  Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y - Negative (X) and Positive (Y) assumptions about people.  Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation - Motivate to reach a goal.  Fredrick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory - Hygiene factors and motivators.  Chester Barnard - Must maintain a system of co-operation.
  12. 12. Should NTC have behavior science department?  I would say: YES!!!  Because: - ―monetary incentives are actually counterproductive when applied to tasks requiring cognitive abilities‖ - ―science knows more than business is doing‖  Company can gain new ideas / proposals whereby, employees could work on things in which they had the greatest interest / passion  Such departments would certainly cost more but there might be value in the ability to study employees' responses to corporate culture, etc. and make changes to benefit the company and the employees
  13. 13. Change Management Presented By: Sabin Bhandari (066 BCT 529)
  14. 14. Change Change is inevitable.
  15. 15. Change Software Development without consideration for change is bound to fail.
  16. 16. Change definition of insanity is continuing to do the same thing over and over again, and expecting different results. - Rita Mae Brown
  17. 17. Change Changes are difficult to predict and grows in proportion to the complexity of the system/project.
  18. 18. Change Management Decisive and functional change management is a decisive factor for project success.
  19. 19. Change Management Types of Changes in Software Development: 1. Changes due unclear requirement 2. Developmental changes
  20. 20. Changes due to unclear requirements Changes not clear in the beginning of the project. Causes: Change in technology Change in market requirements
  21. 21. Developmental Changes 1. Setting objectives as per the purpose and vision of the project 2. Detailed planning of resources 3. Continuous monitoring of the implemented plan 4. Assess progress regularly and make proper plan adjustment
  22. 22. Organizational changes Time and Change Matrix
  23. 23. Managing Change 1. Resistance to Change 2. Organizational Structure 3. Project participants
  24. 24. Change competence/commitment Cadle and Yates (2008) People involved within a team should be classified in terms of 1. Competence – ability to create change 2. Commitment – belief in need for a change
  25. 25. Organizational Changes Cadle and Yades (2008) Commitment / Competence Matrix
  26. 26. Critical Success Factors Presented By: Sanat Maharjan (066 BCT 531)
  27. 27. Success of IS Projects As stated in several studies in the literature, nearly 80% of IS projects fail An unsuccessful project exceeds its schedule and budget yet might not still reach to end Companies try to avoid such project failures due to high investments in terms of money, time and man power The Critical success factors can be listed that affect the success of the project
  28. 28. Critical Success Factors What are they? Why have them? For whom? What are the benefits?
  29. 29. Critical Success Factors What are they?  Those few things that must be done well for the organization to survive and/or prosper  These factors are common in most of the studies, yet the weights and the priorities may change according to the company’s structure, culture, region and IS project’s volume
  30. 30. Sources of CSFs Characteristics of the industry Company competitive strategy, industry position and geographic location Environmental factors Extraordinary temporal factors Managerial position
  31. 31. CSFs in IS Applications Factors about internal organizational structure Strategic alignment between organizational structure / infrastructure and IT structure / infrastructure Top management support and commitment to IS User participation in IS project Matching IT capabilities to organizational needs and goals Organizational structure context Enough managerial and technical skills
  32. 32. CSFs in IS Applications (contd.) Factors about project team structure  Project leader feedback to team  Experience of project leader  Project monitoring and control  Adequate training for team members  Peer review on project progress  Experience of team members  Team member commitment  Team member self control
  33. 33. CSFs in IS Applications (contd.) Appropriate technology and project methodology Clearly stated objectives Detailed project plan Proper project scope Utilizing effective methodology Use of appropriate technology Effective system implementation
  34. 34. CSFs in IS Applications (contd.) After project support  Training of users  Software support  Training of IT staff  On time help to users Environmental factors  Globalization  Environmental dynamism  Competition
  35. 35. Critical Success Factors Why have them? So that you can pay attention to them! To help an individual manager determine his/her information needs To aid an organisation in its general planning process (ie business planning) To aid an organisation in its information system planning process
  36. 36. Critical Success Factors For whom? For senior and middle management – but not as the same group Different levels of management will have different CSFs To use CSFs effectively, you need to be capable of creative thinking
  37. 37. Critical Success Factors What are the benefits? For specifying critical information systems To focus attention on important matters Help to link IS strategy to business strategy help to give projects corporate justification
  38. 38. Next Generation Balance Scorecard Presented By: Sanjana Shrestha (066 BCT 532)
  39. 39. Introduction The Balanced Scorecard was popularized by Harvard professor Robert Kaplan and David Norton in the early 1990s. Balance Scorecard is the de-facto standard in the world of strategic performance scorecards for measuring financial and non-financial performance.
  40. 40. Need of Next Generation Balance Scorecard  BSC is no longer enough to manage discrete functions separately and hope the results of each will aggregate to meet corporate objectives Balanced Scorecards lack arguably the most important element of non-financial performance namely, ―sustainability context,‖ for measuring corporate impacts across the Triple Bottom Line (Environmental, Social, Economic) ―in the context of the limits and demands placed on environmental or social resources at the sectorial, local, regional, or global level‖
  41. 41. Next Generation Balance Scorecard Concepts  The measures and related accountability associated with balanced scorecards must cascade from the executive level throughout the organization. This suggests that every individual's performance is aligned with one or more of these measures Past balanced scorecard efforts oftentimes consisted of metrics that were aggregated, usually using spreadsheets on standalone balanced scorecard applications which lacked the critical alignment, shared responsibility, and "cause and effect" relationships that are absolutely vital
  42. 42. Contd..  It may not be necessary to implement every single balanced scorecard concept to get value from their efforts Previous balanced scorecard applications have failed or been abandoned because companies attempted to implement a conceptually perfect solution only to find that they didn't currently capture or store certain balanced scorecard measures. Companies today are taking more of an iterative approach, starting with those measures supported by information that they do have which is usually stored in a data warehouse
  43. 43. Cause-and-effect models  Today, the more advanced are trying to integrate full cause-and-effect models into their balanced scorecards Fig: Cause and Effect Diagram – Number of Customer Complaints and Customer Satisfaction
  44. 44. Contd.. These systems-thinking- enabled balanced scorecards are especially useful for:  Defining and then executing the corporate strategy  Communicating effectively  Quickly identifying the root causes of potential problems and responding proactively  Alerting decision-makers about early indicators of trouble
  45. 45. Integrated Analytics - Linking Data Warehouse to the Balanced Scorecard  is the integration of information from across a company's complete value chain, the front office to the back office, including: customer relationship management, human resources, financial management, supply chain, e-business and enterprise resource planning  Benefits of this are:  Links the company's strategy with performance measures and cascades these measures and analyses throughout the enterprise
  46. 46. Contd..  Delivers role-based business intelligence to the information consumer in a timely and personalized manner  Integrates a company's information assets across the value chain, including customers, partners and suppliers  Combines advanced technologies and analytics with key processes to positively affect individual behavior
  47. 47. Adaptive Quadruple-Bottom- Line Scorecard  The AQBLSC is a tool for measuring business performance that not only considers standard metrics, such as financial, customer, business processes, and employee development — it also evaluates a firm’s organizational learning and intelligence (routine and creative learning processes), social responsibility, sustainability and adaptive capacity  Major benefits are that the AQBLSC:  balances between internal and external impacts of the organization
  48. 48. Contd..  incorporates a management-evaluation perspective that provides a basis for evaluating the quality of management processes used  provides a conceptual foundation that can enable more sophisticated formal modeling of measures, and simulation of strategy dynamics  offers greater applicability to account for the many ways in which organizational complexity impacts performance  adopts a broad-view systems approach that offers a high probability of achieving organizational sustainability and adaptability
  49. 49. Conclusion  Next generation balance scorecard is the concept or implementation of the things that were lacking in previous balance scorecard which needs to be implemented in order to proceed further
  50. 50. THANK YOU