Introduction to Design Pattern

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Je vous partage l'un des présentations que j'ai réalisé lorsque j'étais élève ingénieur pour le module 'Anglais Business ' , utile pour les étudiants souhaitant préparer une présentation en anglais sur les Design Pattern - ou les patrons de conception .

Published in: Education, Technology, Design

Introduction to Design Pattern

  1. 1. 1 Presented by: - Nozha KANNOUF - Safaâ ELOUAHABI - Sanae BEKKAR Supervised by: Mr. ABDALAOUI Introduction to DesignIntroduction to Design PatternPattern Oujda Med First University National College of Applied Sciences Department of Computer Engineering
  2. 2. Introduction 02/06/2007 2
  3. 3. PlanPlan Why design patterns ? What is a design patterns ? The patterns elements Types of design patterns Describing design patterns The catalog of design patterns Examples of design patterns Conclusion 30/04/2009 3
  4. 4. WhyWhy Design Patterns?Design Patterns? The DP satisfy this need for good ,simple and reusable solutions. DP catalog common interactions between objects that programmers have often found useful. 02/06/2007 4
  5. 5. Difficulties of ObjectDifficulties of Object--Oriented DesignOriented Design Oriented-Object Design find pertinent objects, factor them into classes at the right granularity, define class interfaces and inheritance hierarchies, and establish key relationships among them. 02/06/2007 5
  6. 6. Difficulties of ObjectDifficulties of Object--Oriented DesignOriented Design A reusable and flexible design is difficult if not impossible to get “right” the first time. Experienced OO designers do make good designs. Whereas , New designers are overwhelmed by the options available and tend to fall back on non-OO techniques they’ve used before. What’s their difference? 02/06/2007 6
  7. 7. PatternsPatterns When they find a good solution, they use it again and again – pattern. A designer who is familiar with such patterns can apply them immediately to design problems without having to rediscover them. 02/06/2007 7
  8. 8. What is a design pattern?What is a design pattern? 02/06/2007 8
  9. 9. Design patternsDesign patterns "Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice" [Christopher Alexander] 02/06/2007 9
  10. 10. Design PatternDesign Pattern Design patterns are class combinations and accompanying algorithms that fulfill common design purposes. Design patterns are descriptions of communicating objects and classes that are customized to solve a general design problem in a particular context. 02/06/2007 10
  11. 11. In software engineering, a design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem in software design. A design pattern is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Object-oriented design patterns typically show relationships and interactions between classes or objects, without specifying the final application classes or objects that are involved
  12. 12. The essential elements of a patternThe essential elements of a pattern 02/06/2007 12
  13. 13. Pattern elementsPattern elements Name A meaningful pattern identifier Problem description When to apply the pattern Solution description Elements that make up the pattern, their relationships, responsibilities, and collaborations. Consequences The results and trade-offs of applying the pattern 02/06/2007 13
  14. 14. Types of design patternTypes of design pattern 02/06/2007 14
  15. 15. Types of Design PatternsTypes of Design Patterns Creational patterns Creating a collection of objects in flexible ways. Structural patterns Representing a collection of related objects. Behavioral patterns Capturing behavior among a collection of objects. 02/06/2007 15
  16. 16. Describing Design PatternsDescribing Design Patterns 02/06/2007 16
  17. 17. Describing Design PatternsDescribing Design Patterns Intent short description of the pattern & its purpose Also Known As Any aliases this pattern is known by Motivation motivating scenario demonstrating pattern’s use Applicability circumstances in which pattern applies Structure graphical representation of the pattern using modified UML notation Participants participating classes and/or objects & their responsibilities 02/06/2007 17
  18. 18. Describing Design PatternsDescribing Design Patterns Collaborations how participants cooperate to carry out their responsibilities Consequences the results of application, benefits, liabilities Implementation pitfalls, hints, techniques, plus language-dependent issues Sample Code sample implementations in C++, Java, C#, Smalltalk, C, etc. Known Uses examples drawn from existing systems Related Patterns discussion of other patterns that relate to this one 02/06/2007 18
  19. 19. The Catalog of Design Patterns 02/06/2007 19
  20. 20. The Catalog of Design Patterns Two criteria Purpose: what a pattern does Creational: concern the process of object creation Structural: the composition of classes or objects Behavioral: characterize the ways in which classes or objects interact and distribute responsibility Scope: whether the pattern applies primarily to classes or to objects 02/06/2007 20
  21. 21. The Catalog of Design Patterns 02/06/2007 21
  22. 22. Examples of design patternsExamples of design patterns 02/06/2007 22
  23. 23. 23 Intent create families of related objects without specifying subclass names Applicability when clients cannot anticipate groups of classes to instantiate ABSTRACT FACTORY object creational
  24. 24. 02/06/2007 24 Structure
  25. 25. Intent "compose" objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies. Applicability when clients should ignore the difference between compositions of objects and individual objects 02/06/2007 25 COMPOSITE object structural
  26. 26. 02/06/2007 26 Structure
  27. 27. Intent encapsulate the request for a service Applicability to parameterize objects with an action to perform to specify, file, & execute requests at different times. 02/06/2007 27 Cammand/1 (object behavioral)
  28. 28. 28 Structure
  29. 29. But… 02/06/2007 29
  30. 30. 02/06/2007 30 1.Do not lead to direct code reuse 2. Complex in nature 3. They are deceptively simple 4. They are validated by experience and discussion 5. They consume more memory because of generalized format they are written, to store any kind of data 6. Design patterns may increase or decrease the understandability of a design or implementation
  31. 31. References and related resource [Knuth] Computer Programming as an Art. http://fresh.homeunix.net/~luke/misc/knuth-turingaward.pdf [Columbia] Code convention. http://nsl.cs.columbia.edu/projects/projects.html Design pattern catalog. http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/Patterns.aspx#list Introduction to Software Engineering http://sunset.usc.edu/classes/cs377_2004/

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