The Impact of ISO/IEC 12207 on IT project management

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  • Provides for INNOVATION SCM needed for requirements we do not keep the code necessarily - keep the knowledge
  • USER - end user or can be a customer
  • BY 2020 - WE EXPECT TO SEE A MAJOR GROWTH IN COMPETENCE WITH LICENSED SE PLAUYING A KEY ROLE IN THOSE PROJECTS WHERE PUBLIC SAFETY OR HEALTH IS AT RISK STABLE SE MODEL ABLE TO DEAL WITH THE FULL RANGE OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS /SYSTEMS -FROM MILITARY, THORUGH HEALTH RELATED TO CONSUMER PRODUCTS .. REFELCTING HIGHER CONSUER EXPECTATIONS
  • The Impact of ISO/IEC 12207 on IT project management

    1. 1. The Impact of ISO/IEC 12207 on IT project management ISO/IEC 12207, Information technology - Software life cycle processes Peter Voldner Peregrine Software Inc. Toronto, Ontario [email_address] Tel: 416-526-3843
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Scope: Management of software development projects </li></ul><ul><li>IT software projects have a poor success record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YET ! The problems can be solved. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts from the ISO/IEC 12207 standard can help the software project manager achieve greater success </li></ul>
    3. 3. Knowledge PMBOK SWEBOK 2000 2001 www.swebok.com Software engineering
    4. 4. SWEBOK - KAs <ul><li>Professionalism and engineering economics </li></ul><ul><li>SW requirements </li></ul><ul><li>SW design </li></ul><ul><li>SW construction </li></ul><ul><li>SW testing </li></ul><ul><li>SW maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>SW Configuration management </li></ul><ul><li>SW engineering management </li></ul><ul><li>SW engineering tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>SW engineering process </li></ul><ul><li>SW quality </li></ul>
    5. 5. IT and software <ul><ul><li>Just about every modern product or service depends on software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software intensive products/services include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transportation of all kinds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>financial markets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Software competence <ul><li>Companies dependent on IT projects need to master the software technology to stay competitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce quality products that satisfies user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet committed costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet the planned schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70 - 80 % of companies do not have a process able to support the demands of project control </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is software engineering? <ul><li>Software engineering is concerned with applying scientific principles and management skills to develop software-intensive systems and products for use by society within the constraints of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time: schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>money: budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology: platform and domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality: safety, security, reliability, . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business: profit, stability, growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethics: serving society </li></ul></ul>Acknowledgments: Dr. R.E. Fairley
    8. 8. Software Engineering - 2 Good software engineering practices Good PM practices for IT projects Software engineering practices lead to more successful projects
    9. 9. Why are software projects difficult ? <ul><li>Invisible product </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of physical constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate systems engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Changing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination of intellect-intensive teams </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient technical staff </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of project management skills </li></ul>
    10. 10. Project Failure Reasons Successful - 16% ( $40B) Canceled - 31% ($ 80B) Over schedule & budget - 53 % ( $ 120B) Annual expenditures on software projects in the USA is $ 250B Ref: Standish Group data
    11. 11. Major Issues <ul><li>PLANNING: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software requirements - not clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost & schedule estimation - difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects function - not planned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CM, QA, computing facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning viewed as “non-productive” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONTROL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poor methods for tracking progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor indicators to measure productivity, quality </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Fred Brooks - quote <ul><li>“ IN MANY WAYS, MANAGING A COMPUTER PROGRAMMING PROJECT IS LIKE MANAGING ANY OTHER UNDERTAKING - IN MORE WAYS THAN MOST PROGRAMMERS BELIEVE. BUT IN MANY OTHER WAYS IT IS DIFFERENT - IN MORE WAYS THAN MOST PROFESIONAL MANAGERS EXPECT ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mythical Man-Month, Preface to the First Edition </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>“ .. the demand for software has grown at such an explosive rate, it now far outweighs the resources we have to produce it. ….. desperately needed software is not being developed…….. “ </li></ul><ul><li>“ An interaction of factors has caused this ‘software gap’: accelerated demand for software, increased complexity of systems, …. labor shortages, and lack of adequate science and technology to support robust development. “ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee, ‘ Interim Report to the President’, August, 1998 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Software’s future - A Quote
    14. 14. Recap … <ul><li>Software remains a major cause of system failures </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity is growing </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping up with new techniques & procedures ? </li></ul><ul><li>Software engineering foundation </li></ul>“ We know why projects fail, we know how to prevent their failure -- so why do they still fail ? “ Martin Cobb Treasury Board of Canada
    15. 15. Two types of software projects ( ISO/IEC 12207) <ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developing or modifying a software-intensive system to meet contractual requirements (satisfies user needs ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractually obtaining from a group ( supplier), a software-intensive system for use by another group (user) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. IT Project Management view CUSTOMER ORGANIZATION USER ORGANIZATION ACQUIRING ORGANIZATION SUPPLIER ORGANIZATION “ performing “ 12207 defined roles
    17. 17. What is ISO/IEC 12207 ? <ul><ul><li>The major world-wide standard for software related processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activities and tasks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailored for any organization or project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level process architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An ‘inventory’ of processes from which to choose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the first time - a world-wide agreement on what activities make up a software project </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 12207 Concepts <ul><li>Process Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modular: Handle all types of projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesion: one process for one major function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility: One process for one party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>18 processes </li></ul>
    19. 19. 12207 processes [18] ACQUISITION SUPPLY DEVELOPMENT OPERATION MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENT TRAINING JOINT REVIEW AUDIT V & V QUALITY ASSURANCE DOCUMENTATION CONFIGURATION MANAGAMENT PROBLEM RESOLUTION TAILORING ( SPECIAL ) ORGANIZATIONAL PRIMARY SUPPORTING
    20. 20. References <ul><li>Standards and books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 12207:1995, Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Standard 1062, Recommended practice for software acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 1058, I Standard for software project management plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software engineering project management, Edited by R. Thayer, IEEE Computer Society, 1997. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Defining the project strategy <ul><li>The first step is to choose/tailor a project life cycle by choosing the appropriate set of processes defined in ISO/IEC 12207 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterfall, iterative, RAD, incremental </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Initiation - selecting a project LC Tailoring <ul><li>Project Life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Contract.. </li></ul>Start Project <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Organization policy & methods </li></ul><ul><li>Legal needs </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>PROCESS STANDARD LIFE CYLE MODELS
    23. 23. A simple project - 12207 processes Development Configuration management, joint review verification Operations Maintenance Management Requirements Design Code / Test Install /Acceptance
    24. 24. Major Parties - Primary Supplier Provides the product to the acquirer Acquirer Developer Defines and developed the product Operator USER Maintainer Maintains the software product Acquires the product
    25. 25. The Acquisition Process <ul><li>Defines the activities of the acquirer, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the organization that acquirers a system, software product or software service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. RFP ( tender) preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Contract preparation and update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Supplier monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Acceptance and completion </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Organizational processes Project Life Cycle Employed by organization to establish and implement an underlying structure of .. Processes and personnel, and continuously improve the structure and processes <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>
    27. 27. Management process <ul><li>“ The purpose of the management process is to organize, monitor and control the initiation and performance of any processes or functions within the organization to achieve their goals and the business goals of the organization in an effective manner” ( TR 15504-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation and scope definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Execution and control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review and evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Infrastructure process <ul><li>“ The purpose of the infrastructure process is to maintain a stable and reliable infrastructure that is needed to support the performance of any other process. .. May include hardware, software, methods, tools, techniques, standards, facilities for development, operation, or maintenance.” ( TR 15504-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>establish and maintain a well-defined software engineering environment (SEE)….. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tailor the SEE top the needs of the project... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop a SEE that supports project team members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implement a defined and deployed strategy for reuse </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Management & Infrastructure process standards <ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 982.1 - Standard dictionary of measures to produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reliable software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 1045 - Software productivity metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 1058 - Software project management plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Std 1045 - Recommended practice for the adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> of CASE tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO/IEC 14102 - Guidelines for the evaluation and selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of CASE tools </li></ul></ul>Standards provide the details of what to do
    30. 30. Supporting processes Project Life Cycle <ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration management </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Problem resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Joint review </li></ul><ul><li>Audit </li></ul>Employed by any Primary process or another supporting process:
    31. 31. Quality Assurance (QA) <ul><li>“ The purpose of the quality assurance process is to provide assurance that work products and processes comply with their specified requirements and adhere to their established plan”. TR 15504-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify, plan and schedule QA activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify quality standards, methods and tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify resources and responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>establish and guarantee independence of those.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perform the QA activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apply organizational quality management systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Configuration Management <ul><li>“ The purpose of configuration management is to establish and maintain the integrity of the work products of a process or product”. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify, define and control all relevant items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control modifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>record and report status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ensure completeness of items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control storage handling , release and delivery </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Making a project a success <ul><li>“There are NO Silver bullets “ </li></ul><ul><li>Here are 11 of them !!! </li></ul>
    34. 34. 11 Silver bullets - Planning <ul><li>1. Requirements engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traceability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Task, cost and schedule determination based </li></ul><ul><li>on requirements </li></ul><ul><li>3. Risk management, with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problem tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Incremental development </li></ul>
    35. 35. 11 Silver bullets - control <ul><li>5. Work packages with visible progress measurement </li></ul><ul><li>- WBS, Work package specifications </li></ul><ul><li>- Earned value tracking </li></ul><ul><li>6. Software metrics; </li></ul><ul><li>- size, efforts, schedule, quality </li></ul><ul><li>7. Software configuration management </li></ul><ul><li>8. Software quality assurance and standards </li></ul><ul><li>9. Peer reviews ( walkthroughs and inspections) </li></ul><ul><li>10. Independent verification and validation </li></ul><ul><li>11. Software engineering assessments and capability evaluation </li></ul>
    36. 36. Wounding the software project Werewolf <ul><li>Implement the 11 techniques above rigorously on a software IT project - every chance for success </li></ul>
    37. 37. Outlook for 2020 <ul><li>Range of team skills on software projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licensed Software Engineers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certified software practitioners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled software workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A stable Software Engineering Model </li></ul><ul><li>A doubling of software workers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to 400,000 in Canada ( 20M worldwide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… with an adequate level of competence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Conclusions <ul><ul><li>12207 provides a reference point for all types of IT projects containing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It demands good PM practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A basis for establishing a mature process and successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A roadmap for process and project improvements </li></ul></ul>

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