Software Project Management


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Software Project Management

  1. 1. Software Project Management Session 9: Project Control
  2. 2. Today <ul><li>Session 8 Review </li></ul><ul><li>Project Control </li></ul><ul><li>Status Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Earned Value Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>MS Project </li></ul>
  3. 3. Session 8 Review <ul><li>Project roles and team structure </li></ul><ul><li>CMM </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul>
  4. 4. Project Control <ul><li>Ongoing effort to keep your project on track </li></ul><ul><li>4 primary activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Planning performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A SDP, schedule, and a control process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Measuring status of work performed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Comparing to baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Taking corrective action as needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prerequisite to good control is a good plan </li></ul>
  5. 5. Project Control <ul><li>“ Control” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power, authority, domination. No. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding a course of action to meet an objective. Yes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work is controlled, not workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control helps workers be more effective & efficient </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control based on work completed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use concrete deliverables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate level between too much and too little </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-managing vs. neglect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much tracking detail vs. too little </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Progress Monitoring <ul><li>The 3 key Progress Monitoring Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the actual status? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there’s a variance, what is cause? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do about it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Ignore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Take corrective action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Review the plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Progress Monitoring <ul><li>Monitoring rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily, weekly, monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If problems occur – then adjust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may have to monitor problem areas more closely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For some period of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost always there’s one or more areas under closer scrutiny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Status Reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the communications management plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which is usually just a section of SDP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Status Reports <ul><li>From team to PM, from PM to stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Typical format for latter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishments for this period (done) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks, milestones, metrics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for next period (to-do) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk analysis and review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues & Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shoot for weekly updates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email notes, then hold brief meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More frequently during crises </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Programming Status Reporting <ul><li>A programmer reports that he’s 90% done. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A programmer reports completing 4,000 LOC on estimated 5,000 LOC effort. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this 80% complete? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio, estimated to completed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your estimates could have been wrong </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you can’t measure scope or quality you don’t know “reality” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You really only know cost (hours spent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can you improve this? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Binary Reporting <ul><li>Work packages (tasks) can only be in one of 2 states: complete or incomplete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No partial credit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred to anything subjective! </li></ul><ul><li>“ 90% Complete Syndrome” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software is 90% complete 90% of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use lower-level task decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible exit criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for 4-80 staff hours of effort per task </li></ul>
  11. 11. Earned Value Analysis (EVA) <ul><li>a.k.a. Earned Value Management (EVM) </li></ul><ul><li>a.k.a. Variance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Metric of project tracking </li></ul><ul><li>“ What you got for what you paid” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-EVA ‘traditional’ approach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Planned time and costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Actual time and costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progress: compare planned vs. actual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EVA adds third dimension: value </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planned, actual, earned </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old models include cost & expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVA adds schedule estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measured in dollars or hours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often time used in software projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time-phased budget plan against which contract performance is measured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost & schedule variances go against this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best via a bottom-up plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>Different methods are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on % complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weights applied to milestones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EVA can signal errors as early as 15% into project </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabet Soup </li></ul>
  14. 14. Earned Value Analysis <ul><ul><li>3 major components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWS: Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now called “Planned Value” (PV) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Yearned” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much work should be done? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWP: Budgeted Cost of Work Performed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now called “earned value” (EV) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Earned” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much work is done? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWS * % complete </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACWP: Actual Cost of Work Performed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now called “Actual Cost” (AC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Burned” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much did the work done cost? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Derived EVA Variances <ul><ul><ul><li>SV: Schedule Variance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWP – BCWS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planned work vs. work completed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CV: Cost Variance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWP – ACWP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Budgeted costs vs. actual costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negatives are termed ‘unfavorable’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be plotted on ‘spending curves’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative cost (Y axis) vs. Time (X axis) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically in an ‘S’ shape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is the project status”? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can use variances to answer this </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Earned Value Analysis
  17. 17. Derived EVA Ratios <ul><ul><li>SPI: Schedule Performance Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWP / BCWS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPI: Cost Performance Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BCWP / ACWP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in project if either of these less than 1 (or 100%) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>Other Derived Values </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BAC: Budget At Completion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of all budges (BCWS). Your original budget. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EAC: Estimate At Completion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast total cost at completion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EAC = ((BAC – BCWP)/CPI) + ACWP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfinished work divided by CPI added to sunk cost </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If CPI < 1, EAC will be > BAC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CR: Critical Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPI x CPI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1: everything on track </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> .9 and < 1.2 ok </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be charted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. EVA Example <ul><li>As of 1-July where are we? </li></ul><ul><li>BCWS </li></ul><ul><li>BCWP </li></ul><ul><li>ACWP </li></ul>
  20. 20. EVA Example <ul><li>CV </li></ul><ul><li>SV </li></ul><ul><li>CPI </li></ul><ul><li>SPI </li></ul><ul><li>CR </li></ul>
  21. 21. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>BCWS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ‘loaded labor’ rates if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct pay + overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember it’s an aggregate figure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May hide where the problem lies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of counterbalancing issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over in one area vs. under in another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Earned Value Analysis <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent unit of measure for total progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across cost and completed activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apples and apples comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to forecast cost & schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can provide warnings early </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Success factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A full WBS is required (all scope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of GIGO: Garbage-in, garbage-out </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The MS-Project Process <ul><li>Move WBS into a Project outline (in Task Sheet) </li></ul><ul><li>Add resources (team members or roles) </li></ul><ul><li>Add costs for resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assign resources to tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Establish dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Refine and optimize </li></ul><ul><li>Create baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Track progress (enter actuals, etc.) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Project Overview <ul><li>This is a ‘quickie’ overview </li></ul><ul><li>We will return to all of these steps individually over the next few weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Sample project from McConnell </li></ul>
  25. 25. Project UI <ul><li>Views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Default is Gant Chart View </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 panes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task Sheet on left (a table) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt Chart on right </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View Bar on far left </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Project UI
  27. 27. Create Your Project <ul><li>File/New </li></ul><ul><li>Setup start date </li></ul><ul><li>Setup calendar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu: Project/Project Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often left with default settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours, holidays </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Enter WBS <ul><li>Outlining </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-tasks and summary tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Do not enter start/end dates for each </li></ul><ul><li>Just start with Task Name and Duration for each </li></ul><ul><li>Use Indent/Outdent buttons to define summary tasks and subtasks </li></ul><ul><li>You can enter specific Start/End dates but don’t most of the time </li></ul>
  29. 29. Establish Durations <ul><li>Know the abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>h/d/w/m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D is default </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can use partial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.5d is a half-day task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elapsed durations </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated durations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put a ‘?’ after duration </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Add Resources <ul><li>Work Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to track costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: amount of equipment purshased </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used as often in typical software project </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Resource Sheet <ul><li>Can add new resources here </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or directly in the task entry sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beware of mis-spellings (Project will create near-duplicates) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Setup costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as annual salary (put ‘yr’ after ‘Std. Rate’) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Effort-Driven Scheduling <ul><li>MS-Project default </li></ul><ul><li>Duration * Units = Work </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration = Work / Units (D = W/U) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work = Duration * Units (W = D*U) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Units = Work / Duration (U = W/D) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adding more resources to a task shortens duration </li></ul><ul><li>Can be changed on a per-task basis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the advanced tab of Task Information dialog box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task Type setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Beware the Mythical Man-month </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for laying bricks, not always so for software development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Link Tasks <ul><li>On toolbar: Link & Unlink buttons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for many at once </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or via Gantt chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drag from one task to another </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Milestones <ul><li>Zero duration tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Insert task ‘normally’ but put 0 in duration </li></ul>
  35. 35. Make Assignments <ul><li>Approach 1. Using Task Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Resource Names column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can create new ones by just typing-in here </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Using Assign Resources dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for multiple resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight task, Tools/Resources or toolbar button </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Using Task Information dialog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources tab </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Task Entry view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View/More Views/Task Entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or Task Entry view on Resource Mgmt. toolbar </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Save Baseline <ul><li>Saves all current information about your project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates, resource assignments, durations, costs </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Fine Tune <ul><li>Then is used later as basis for comparing against “actuals” </li></ul><ul><li>Menu: Tools/Tracking/Save Baseline </li></ul>
  38. 38. Project 2002 <ul><li>3 Editions: Standard, Professional, Server </li></ul><ul><li>MS Project Server 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade of old “Project Central” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes “Project Web Access”, web-based UI (partial) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workgroup and resource notification features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires SQL-Server and IIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Portfolio Analyzer” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drill-down into projects via pivot tables & charts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Portfolio Modeler” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create models and “what-if” scenarios </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SharePoint Team Services integration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Project 2002 <ul><li>MS-Project Professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Build Team” feature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills-based resource matching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Pools: with skill set tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Substitution Wizard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Project Guide” feature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizable “process component” </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. MS-Project Q&A <ul><li>Your WBS in Project </li></ul><ul><li>How did it go? </li></ul><ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Homework <ul><li>Schwalbe: 7 “Project Quality Management” </li></ul><ul><li>URLs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Introduction to Software Testing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Introduction to Software Testing Principles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Project plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and submit an initial copy of the project plan (limited to tasks & milestones) for your individual project </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Questions?