Project Management Slides

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Project Management Slides

  1. 1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROF HEATHER NEL DIRECTOR: RAYMOND MHLABA INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP [email_address] za 041-5042263 (tel/fax)
  2. 2. PROJECT DEFINED <ul><li>Any undertaking with a defined starting point and specific objectives by which completion is identified (PMBOK) </li></ul><ul><li>Any series of activities which has specific objectives, defined start and end dates and which must be completed within certain constraints (Kerzner) </li></ul><ul><li>A non-routine, non-repetitive, once-off undertaking (Burton & Michael) </li></ul><ul><li>A complex effort to achieve a specific objective within a schedule and budget target, which typically is unique, and is usually not repetitive within the organisation (Knutzon & Bitz) </li></ul>
  3. 3. PROJECTS VS ROUTINE OPERATIONS <ul><li>Uniqueness : project is undertaken to produce a unique product or purpose that cannot be achieved through routine operations </li></ul><ul><li>Non-repetitive : project is undertaken to achieve a purpose or product following which it is deemed complete and not repeated on a continuous basis </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Building a house, bridge or road versus processing pension applications; Developing a marketing plan versus manufacturing cars </li></ul>
  4. 4. POLICY,PROGRAMME, PROJECT <ul><li>POLICY : Overall objectives of the government; nationally applicable; macro-focus </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMME : Designed to give effect to/implement/deliver policy; comprises a number of interrelated and interdependent projects; meso-focus </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT : Designed to give effect to broader programme; micro-focus; four major constraints: time, cost, quality/performance, and scope </li></ul>
  5. 5. PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS <ul><li>Job creation </li></ul><ul><li>Labour-intensive technology </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of project benefits </li></ul><ul><li>High impact on community </li></ul><ul><li>Community participation </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment and capacity-building </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of basic needs </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and political viability </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Time management Procurement management Risk management Communication management Human resource management Quality management Cost management Integration management Scope management
  8. 8. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CYCLE <ul><li>PROJECT PLANNING : Identification, formulation, business plan, project scope statement, preparation and feasibility analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION : Allocating responsibilities, work breakdown structure, establishing time schedules, resource scheduling, monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT EVALUATION : Identify policy objectives, key performance indicators, collect data, compare data </li></ul>
  9. 9. PROJECT PLANNING <ul><li>Sources of project ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Need for community participation </li></ul><ul><li>Objective tree technique </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a project scope statement </li></ul><ul><li>Business plan and logical framework analysis </li></ul>
  10. 10. BUSINESS PLANS <ul><li>ARE A FOCUS ON WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE </li></ul><ul><li>CAN IDENTIFY THE NECESSARY RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE A PLAN OF HOW TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY/ CLIENT </li></ul><ul><li>LINK THE PROJECT TO THE BUDGET OF THE ORGANISATION </li></ul>
  11. 11. WRITING BUSINESS PLANS <ul><li>PLAN BEFORE YOU WRITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO IS THE AUDIENCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT DO YOU NEED TO SAY? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USE A PRO-FORMA AS A GUIDE </li></ul><ul><li>KEEP IT SIMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE IT COMPLETE </li></ul><ul><li>MINIMISE REDUNDANCY </li></ul>
  12. 12. COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN <ul><li>DETAILS OF EXECUTING AGENCY AND PROJECT MANAGER </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT SUMMARY </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT JUSTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT STRATEGY </li></ul><ul><li>TARGETED BENEFICIARIES </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTED RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT WORK PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECT ACTIVITIES/OUTPUTS </li></ul>
  13. 13. PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>PROJECT SCOPE : the work that must be done to deliver a product or service within the specified features and functions </li></ul><ul><li>OUTPUT : a written scope statement that subdivides the project into smaller, more manageable components </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOME : clear assignment of responsibilities and improved control and performance measurement </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUE : Work Breakdown Structure </li></ul>
  14. 14. PROJECT SCOPE STATEMENT <ul><li>Project justification – the business need that the project was undertaken to address </li></ul><ul><li>Project product – a brief summary of the product/service to be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Project deliverables – a list of the sub-products whose satisfactory delivery marks the completion of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Project objectives – quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be successful and must include time, cost and quality measures (also called KPIs) </li></ul>
  15. 15. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE <ul><li>Breaks project down into manageable chunks </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown continued to level of project activity package (PAP) </li></ul><ul><li>PAP can be assigned to one individual </li></ul><ul><li>Average project has about 3 to 4 levels </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1: overall project </li></ul>
  16. 16. PROJECT SCHEDULING <ul><li>Comprises the ordering of activities required to ensure timely completion of project </li></ul><ul><li>What must be done? Activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development and schedule control </li></ul><ul><li>How? Bar/Gantt charts or networks (PERT, CPM, Precedence, Activity-on-Arrow, Activity-on-Node) </li></ul>
  17. 17. PROJECT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Planning, allocating and scheduling resources to tasks </li></ul><ul><li>What must be done? Resource smoothing (ie ensure smooth demand of resources over life cycle of project </li></ul><ul><li>How? Deal with resource under- and overloads: </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule resources to critical activities first </li></ul><ul><li>Make time-cost-quality trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Work overtime or shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Train staff or maintain equipment during slack times </li></ul>
  18. 18. PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Includes the processes required to ensure that project is completed within approved budget </li></ul><ul><li>Resource planning – determining what resources and what quantities thereof are required to perform project activities </li></ul><ul><li>Cost estimating – developing an approximation of costs of required resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cost budgeting – allocating overall cost estimate to individual work items </li></ul><ul><li>Cost control – controlling changes to the project budget </li></ul>
  19. 19. PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Risk identification – determining which risks are likely to affect the project and documenting characteristics of each </li></ul><ul><li>Risk quantification – evaluating risks to assess range of possible project outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Risk response development – defining enhancement steps for opportunities and responses to threats </li></ul><ul><li>Risk response control – responding to changes in risk over the duration of the project (avoidance, mitigation, acceptance) </li></ul>
  20. 20. RESPONDING TO PROJECT RISKS <ul><li>Procurement – acquiring goods and services from outside the project organisation (ie transfer risks) </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency planning – identify action steps to take should the identified risk event occur </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative strategies – prevent/avoid risk events by changing the planned approach </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance – available to deal with certain types of risk and cost of coverage varies </li></ul><ul><li>Reserves – provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk </li></ul>
  21. 21. PROJECT MONITORING AND CONTROL <ul><li>MONITORING :Continuously assessing project during implementation to determine progress in achieving project objectives and milestones </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLING : Establishing baseline standards against which progress can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>PURPOSE : Quickly identify variances between planned and actual performance </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOME : Corrective action taken if required </li></ul>
  22. 22. PROJECT EVALUATION <ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>HOW? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify policy objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Establish key performance indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Compare data </li></ul>
  23. 23. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE <ul><li>TYPES OF STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL/BUREAUCRATIC </li></ul><ul><li>MATRIX (weak, balanced, strong) </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTISED </li></ul><ul><li>WHY REORGANISATION? </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental pressures, structural deficiencies, technological innovation etc </li></ul><ul><li>HOW REORGANISATION? </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational development (OD) and change management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>NB! Resistance to change </li></ul>
  24. 24. PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS <ul><li>LEADERSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>TRAITS </li></ul><ul><li>STYLES </li></ul><ul><li>ORIENTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>TEAM-BUILDING </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><li>OUTCOMES </li></ul><ul><li>CONFLICT RESOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES OF CONFLICT </li></ul><ul><li>MODES OF RESOLUTION </li></ul>

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