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Project Management - Project Bailout - www.ProjectBailout.com

  1. 1. Principles of Project Management How to help make your projects more successful
  2. 2. Why Project Management? <ul><li>Learn from lessons, success, and mistakes of others </li></ul><ul><li>Better understanding of financial, physical, and human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Project Management Contributes to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved customer relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter development times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality and increased reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management Generally Provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better internal coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher worker morale </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why Projects Fail <ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Talking, Emailing etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope Creep </li></ul><ul><li>Poor planning </li></ul><ul><li>Weak business case </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of management direction & involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking and Not Building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive Specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement of expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$ </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Project Management Benefits for the Individual <ul><li>Develops leaders in organization with a detailed understanding of multiple areas of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Cross departmental communication and networking </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits not limited to just the Project </li></ul><ul><li>Manager, Team members get same exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Attention from executive management team </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of being a team player, problem solver, and a get things done person </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organization <ul><li>Lectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book Chapters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And Discussions! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan, Schedule and Allocate Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Attempt At Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.yancy.org/research/project_management.html </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Lectures <ul><li>1 - Introduction to Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Project Management Context </li></ul><ul><li>2’- Project Management for Dummies - Summary </li></ul><ul><li>3 - Project Management Integration </li></ul><ul><li>4 - Project Scope Management </li></ul><ul><li>5 - Project Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>6 - Project Cost Management </li></ul><ul><li>7 - Project Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>8 - Project Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>9 - Project Communications Management </li></ul><ul><li>10 - Project Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>11 - Project Procurement Management </li></ul><ul><li>12 - Project Management as a Profession </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sources – Use the Web <ul><li>Project Management Institute: www.pmi.org </li></ul><ul><li>Project World: www.projectworld.com </li></ul><ul><li>Software Program Managers Network: www.spmn.com </li></ul><ul><li>PM forum: www.allpm.com </li></ul><ul><li>ESI International: www.esi-intl.com </li></ul><ul><li>Project Bailout – www.ProjectBailout.com </li></ul><ul><li>“ Project Management for Dummies” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Project Planning Scheduling & Control,” James P. Lewis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Hands-on Guide to Bringing Projects in on time and On Budget </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Why are you here? <ul><li>Who are you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your background? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you want to learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much effort? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Me </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Bullough-Latsch, [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 years managing projects, 818-993-3722 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All material will be provided on a CD! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sign In, Email Addresses etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange Business Cards </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mapping Lectures and Lewis Book <ul><li>Introduction to Project Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 1 – Introduction to PM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 5 – Headless Chicken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 6 – Project Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 7 – Implementation Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Scope Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 9 – Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Cost Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Communications Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Risk Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Procurement Management </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management as a Profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Project Management
  11. 11. PM is used in all industries, at all levels
  12. 12. Why Project Management? <ul><li>Better control of financial, physical, and human resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from mistakes of others! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved customer relations </li></ul><ul><li>More Managed Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality and increased reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher profit margins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better internal coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher worker morale </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Why Projects Fail <ul><li>Poor communications </li></ul><ul><li>Scope Creep </li></ul><ul><li>Poor planning </li></ul><ul><li>Weak business case </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of management direction & involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement of expectations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Project versus Program <ul><li>What is a project? </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary and unique </li></ul><ul><li>Definite beginning and end </li></ul><ul><li>Unique purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Require resources, often from various areas involve uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: temporary does not mean short in duration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a program? </li></ul><ul><li>A group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available to managing them individually </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term for: a collection of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Same Techniques Work for Projects, Products, & Programs! </li></ul><ul><li>Use them where they work! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Triple Constraints Theory <ul><li>Every project is constrained in different ways by its </li></ul><ul><li>Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>Time goals: How long should it take to complete? </li></ul><ul><li>Cost goals: What should it cost? </li></ul><ul><li>It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three often competing goals </li></ul>
  16. 16. Project Management Framework
  17. 17. Project Stakeholders <ul><li>Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the project sponsor and project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers and vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opponents to the project </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PM Knowledge Areas <ul><li>Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop </li></ul><ul><li>core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas </li></ul>
  19. 19. Relationship to other disciplines
  20. 20. PM Tools & Techniques <ul><li>Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 communicating with people!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some specific ones include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Charter and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) (scope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sample GANTT Chart
  22. 22. Sample Network Diagram
  23. 23. Sample Earned Value Chart
  24. 24. Points From Lewis Chapter 1 <ul><li>A project is a one-time job, as opposed to a repetitive activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree, can make repetitive into a series of projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project management is facilitation of the planning, scheduling, and controlling of all activities that must be done to meet project objectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>??????????? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle: Can assign values to only three of the PCTS constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance, Cost, Time, Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree - There are relationship, but it is not magic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Principle: To reduce both cost and time in a project, must change the process by which you do work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe “Understand” and control is better than change </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Lewis Principles Chapter 1 <ul><li>Principle: Improving quality reduces costs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling quality contributes to controlling cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bugs / Errors Cost Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal QA Organizations can be negative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good Project Management includes tools, people, and systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools are not very important! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The people who must do the work should develop the plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree – The people who do the work should contribute to the plan, but some project management is needed to focus the effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Thought process can be applied to any project regardless o type or size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. “Lewis Method” Five Phases <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Execution and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have only worked at one company that practiced this, TRW called it a debriefing or post mortem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually everyone is gone prior to the completion! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Projects for Homework <ul><li>Sample Project </li></ul><ul><li>Plan, Schedule, and Presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a brief project plan and top-level schedule (MS Project is preferred). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effort at Each Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign Teams, Choose Subject, Divide work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can do home work to make it better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan and Document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present for Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criticize Others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Can Be Anything </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested Projects - Defaults </li></ul>
  28. 28. CHAPTER 2 Project Management Context
  29. 29. Projects are not Isolated <ul><li>Projects must operate in a broad organizational environment </li></ul><ul><li>Project managers need to take a holistic or systems view of a project and understand how it is situated within the larger organization </li></ul><ul><li>Systems View to Project Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysis: problem-solving approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Project Phases <ul><li>Projects are divided up into phases, collectively project phases are known as the project lifecycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Phases often overlap!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project phases are marked by completion of one or more deliverables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions at the end of each phase (known as phase exits, kill points, or stage gates) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine if the project should continue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect and correct errors cost effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deliverables from the preceding phase are usually approved before work exceeds 20% of the next phase’s budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IE Overlapping work is done at cost risk to meet schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAST TRACKING: projects that have overlapping phases </li></ul>
  31. 31. Project Lifecycle <ul><li>Most project lifecycles have common characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phases: Concept, Development, Implementation, Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost and staffing levels are low to start and higher toward the end and drop rapidly as the project draws to conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders have more influence in the early phases of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of changes and error correction often increases as the project continues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some changes can be deferred until after delivery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Phases of the Project Life Cycle Customer Acceptance Performance Reports 6+ level WBS 3-level WBS Reporting / Decomposition Lessons Learned Costs and Over Runs Budgetary Cost Estimate Preliminary Cost Estimate Financial Completed Work Work Package Project Plan Management Plan Planning Close-Out Implementation Development Concept Phase Deliverables
  33. 33. Project Life Cycle <ul><li>Determination of Mission Need —ends with Concept Studies Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Exploration and Definition —ends with Concept Demonstration Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration and Validation –ends with Development Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering and Manufacturing –ends with Production Approval </li></ul><ul><li>Production and Deployment –overlaps with Operations and Support </li></ul>
  34. 34. Systems Development Life Cycles <ul><li>Waterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and support </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral model: shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approach </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental release model: provides for progressive development of operational software </li></ul><ul><li>RAD model: used to produce systems quickly without sacrificing quality </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping model: used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Waterfall Model of the Software Life Cycle
  36. 36. Spiral
  37. 37. Fast Tracking / Overlap of Processes
  38. 38. Extreme Programming - Focuses on customer driven changes
  39. 39. Organizational Structures TOP? Bottom
  40. 40. Critical Success Factors <ul><li>Critical Success Factors According to the Standish Group’s report CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success, the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear business objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimized scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard software infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm basic requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable estimates </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Headless Chicken (Lewis) <ul><li>Software Projects – 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17% Succeeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33% Failed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% Revised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Headless Chick is about a bird dying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body keeps moving after head is cut off! </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. More on The Lewis Method <ul><li>Projects often fail at the beginning, not at the end. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The false consensus effect is a failure to manage disagreement, because no knows it exists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not that important …. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I think this is also the blind leading the blind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process will always affect task performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Lewis … <ul><li>Write the Mission Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write something would be better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first objective for a project manager is to achieve a shared understanding of the team’s mission. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree, it is important, but $ and convincing yourself are more important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The way a problem is defined determines how we attempt to solve it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Lewis and Strategy <ul><li>Strategy is an overall approach to a project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is best not to employ cutting-edge technology in a project that has very tight deadline. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is usually best to use proven technology. (period!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is best to separate discovery from development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Project Management For Dummies – Chapter 2’ Project Management For Dummies By Stanley E. Portny ISBN: 0-7645-5283-X Format: Paper Pages: 384 Pages Pub. Date: October 2000
  46. 46. PART I: Defining Your Project and Developing Your Game Plan. <ul><li>Chapter 1: What Is Project Management? (And Do I Get Paid Extra to Do It?). </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 2: Defining What You're Trying to Accomplish — and Why. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 3: Getting from Here to There. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4: You Want This Done When? </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 5: Estimating Resource Requirements. </li></ul>
  47. 47. PART II: Organizing the Troops. <ul><li>Chapter 6: The Who and the How of Project Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 7: Involving the Right People in Your Project. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8: Defining Team Members' Roles and Responsibilities. </li></ul>
  48. 48. PART III: Steering the Ship. <ul><li>Chapter 9: Starting Off on the Right Foot. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 10: Tracking Progress and Maintaining Control. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 11: Keeping Everyone Informed. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 12: Encouraging Peak Performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 13: Bringing Your Project to a Close. </li></ul>
  49. 49. PART IV: Getting Better and Better. <ul><li>Chapter 14: Dealing with Risk and Uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 15: Using the Experience You've Gained. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 16: With All the Great New Technology, What's Left for You to Do? </li></ul>
  50. 50. PART V: The Part of Tens. <ul><li>Chapter 17: Ten Questions to Help You Plan Your Project. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Hold People Accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 19: Ten Steps to Getting Your Project Back on Track. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 20: Ten Tips for Being a Better Project Manager. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Chapter 17: Ten Questions to Help You Plan Your Project. <ul><li>Why is your project being Done? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will you need to Involve? </li></ul><ul><li>What results will you Produce </li></ul><ul><li>What Constraints Must you Satisfy? </li></ul><ul><li>What assumptions are you Making </li></ul><ul><li>What work must be done? </li></ul><ul><li>When will you start and end each activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’ll perform the project Work? </li></ul><ul><li>What other Resources will you need? </li></ul><ul><li>What could go wrong? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Hold People Accountable. <ul><li>Involve People who really have authority </li></ul><ul><li>Be Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Get a Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Put it in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the Urgency and Importance of the assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Tell others about the person’s commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on a plan for monitoring the person’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the persons work. </li></ul><ul><li>Always Acknowledge Good Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Act as if you have the authority </li></ul>
  53. 53. Chapter 19: Ten Steps to Getting Your Project Back on Track. <ul><li>Determine why project got off track </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirm key drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirm Project Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirm activities remaining to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirm Roles and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a viable schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirm Personnel assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Risk-Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Hold a midcourse Kick-off Session </li></ul><ul><li>Closely Monitor Performance </li></ul>
  54. 54. Chapter 20: Ten Tips for Being a Better Project Manager <ul><li>Be a “why” person </li></ul><ul><li>Be a “Can Do” person </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Assume </li></ul><ul><li>Say what you mean; Mean what you say </li></ul><ul><li>View people as allies, not adversaries </li></ul><ul><li>Respect other people </li></ul><ul><li>Think “big Picture” </li></ul><ul><li>Think Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge good performance </li></ul><ul><li>Be both a manager and a leader </li></ul>
  55. 55. Rest <ul><li>Appendix A: Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix B: Earned Value Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Index. </li></ul>
  56. 56. CHAPTER 3 Project Management Integration
  57. 57. Project Integration Management
  58. 58. Planning and Control <ul><li>Project Plan Development: taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document—the project plan </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan Execution: carrying out the project plan </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Change Control: coordinating changes across the entire project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine that a change has occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage actual changes when and as they occur </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Project Plan Development <ul><li>A project plan is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents </li></ul><ul><li>Its main purpose is to guide project execution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also helps the Project Management to Express their vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project plans assist the project manager in leading the project team and assessing project status </li></ul><ul><li>Project performance should be measured against a baseline project plan </li></ul>
  60. 60. What is a Project Plan? <ul><li>Common misunderstanding: Project Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction or overview of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Description of how the project is organized </li></ul><ul><li>Management and technical processes used on the project </li></ul><ul><li>Work to be done, schedule, and budget information </li></ul>
  61. 61. Chapter 17: Ten Questions to Help You Plan Your Project. <ul><li>Why is your project being Done? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will you need to Involve? </li></ul><ul><li>What results will you Produce </li></ul><ul><li>What Constraints Must you Satisfy? </li></ul><ul><li>What assumptions are you Making </li></ul><ul><li>What work must be done? </li></ul><ul><li>When will you start and end each activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’ll perform the project Work? </li></ul><ul><li>What other Resources will you need? </li></ul><ul><li>What could go wrong? (Project Management for Dummies) </li></ul>
  62. 62. Sample Project Plan – Security Audits <ul><li>1. Information Security - Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why an Information Security Audit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced Documents and Web Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Support to Audit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit Results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Tasks and Sub Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End User Sample </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion with Responsible Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final report (Hardcopy, Executive Briefing, 2 CDs, Destroy Working Notes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Project Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need-to-know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure Storage of Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. More on Project Plan <ul><li>First Page needs to Sell the Project! </li></ul><ul><li>Plan addresses what, how, which organizations, order of magnitude; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but generally does not whom, when, and exact $ </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>A stakeholder analysis documents important (often sensitive) information about stakeholders such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stakeholders’ names and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>roles on the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unique facts about stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>level of influence and interest in the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggestions for managing relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget and Other Money! </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Project Plan Execution <ul><li>Project plan execution involves managing performing the work described in the project plan </li></ul><ul><li>Work Authorization System: a method ensuring that qualified people do work at right time and in the proper sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in Aerospace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status Review Meetings: regularly scheduled meetings used to exchange project information </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Software: special software to assist in managing projects </li></ul>
  66. 66. Integrated Change Control Integrated change control involves identifying, evaluating, and managing changes throughout the project life cycle Three main objectives of change control: – Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficial – Determine that a change has occurred – Manage actual changes when and as they occur
  67. 67. Establish Change Control System <ul><li>A formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents and work may be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Describes who is authorized to make changes and how to make them </li></ul><ul><li>Often includes a change control board (CCB), configuration management, and a process for communicating changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes on a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides guidelines for preparing change requests, evaluates them, and manages the implementation of approved changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes stakeholders from the entire organization </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Lewis – Developing an Implementation Plan <ul><li>The more important a project deadline, the more important the plan becomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Planning” versus Plan versus Work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never plan in more detail than control. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To ignore probable risk is not a “can-do” attitude but a fool hardy approach to project management. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/No – Need to present positive face to extent feasible </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. More Lewis Points Chapter 7 <ul><li>You don’t worry about the sequence of tasks while constructing the WBS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A work breakdown structure does not show the sequence in which work is performed! </li></ul><ul><li>A WBS is a list activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Law: Work will expand to take the time allowed </li></ul>
  70. 70. CHAPTER 4 Project Scope Management
  71. 71. What is Scope Management? <ul><li>Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and processes used to create them </li></ul><ul><li>Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in the project </li></ul><ul><li>The project team and stakeholders must have the same understanding of what products be produces as a result of a project and what processes will be used in producing them </li></ul>
  72. 72. Defining Scope – The Process <ul><li>Initiation: beginning a project or continuing to the next phase </li></ul><ul><li>Scope planning: developing documents to provide the basis for future project decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Scope definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components </li></ul><ul><li>Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scope </li></ul><ul><li>Scope change control: controlling changes to project scope </li></ul>
  73. 73. Project & Organization Alignment
  74. 74. Project & Organization Alignment - 2 <ul><li>Stages / Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ties technology strategy to mission and vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Business Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope, Benefits, constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocates People and $ </li></ul></ul>Strategy Business Area Analysis Project Planning Resource Allocation
  75. 75. Project Financial Analysis <ul><li>Financial considerations are often an important consideration in selecting projects </li></ul><ul><li>Three primary methods for determining the </li></ul><ul><li>projected financial value of projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Net present value (NPV) analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on investment (ROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback analysis </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Net Present Value (NPV) <ul><li>Net present value (NPV) analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time </li></ul><ul><li>Projects with a positive NPV should be considered if financial value is a key criterion </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the NPV, the better </li></ul>
  77. 77. NPV Sample
  78. 78. Return on Investment <ul><li>Return on investment (ROI) is income divided by investment ROI = (total discounted benefits - total discounted costs) / discounted costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the realized ROI, the better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too Often, it is hyped </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many organizations have a required rate of return or minimum acceptable rate of return on investment for projects </li></ul>
  79. 79. Sample: NPV, ROI, & Payback
  80. 80. Payback Analysis <ul><li>The payback period is the amount of time it will take to recoup, in the form of net cash inflows, the net dollars invested in a project </li></ul><ul><li>Payback occurs when the cumulative discounted benefits and costs are greater than zero </li></ul><ul><li>Many organizations want projects to have a fairly short payback period </li></ul>
  81. 81. Project Selection Tool: Weighted Scoring
  82. 82. Project Charter <ul><li>After deciding what project to work on, it is important to formalize projects </li></ul><ul><li>A project charter is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project’s objectives and management </li></ul><ul><li>Key project stakeholders should sign a project charter to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Defines project’s purpose, products, scope, objectives, constraints, assumptions, risks, organization, reporting structure, priority and completion criteria </li></ul>
  83. 83. Sample Project Charter Project Title: Information Technology (IT) Upgrade Project Project Start Date: March 4, 200 Projected Finish Date: December 4, 2002 Project Manager: Kim Nguyen, 691-2784, knguyen@abc.com Project Objectives: Upgrade hardware and software for all employees (approximately 2,000) within 9 months based on new corporate standards. See attached sheet describing the new standards. Upgrades may affect servers and midrange computers as well as network hardware and software. Budgeted $1,000,000 for hardware and software costs and $500,000 for labor costs. Approach: • Update the IT inventory database to determine upgrade needs • Develop detailed cost estimate for project and report to CIO • Issue a request for quotes to obtain hardware and software • Use internal staff as much as possible to do the planning, analysis, and installation
  84. 84. More Name Role Responsibility Walter Schmidt, CEO Project Sponsor Monitor project Mike Zwack CIO Monitor project, provide staff Kim Nguyen Project Manager Plan and execute project Jeff Johnson Director of IT Operations Mentor Nancy Reynolds VP, Human Resources Provide staff, issue memo to all employees about project Steve McCann Director of Purchasing Assist in purchasing hardware and software Sign-off: (Signatures of all above stakeholders) Comments: (Handwritten comments from above stakeholders, if applicable) This project must be done within ten months at the absolute latest. Mike Zwack, CIO We are assuming that adequate staff will be available and committed to supporting this project. Some work must be done after hours to avoid work disruptions, and overtime will be provided. Jeff Johnson and Kim Nguyen, Information Technology Department
  85. 85. Scope Statement & Planning <ul><li>A scope statement is a document used to develop and confirm a common understanding of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>a project justification </li></ul><ul><li>a brief description of the project’s products </li></ul><ul><li>a summary of all project deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>a statement of what determines project success </li></ul><ul><li>helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates </li></ul><ul><li>defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control </li></ul><ul><li>aids in communicating clear work responsibilities </li></ul>
  86. 86. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) <ul><li>After completing scope planning, the next step is to further define the work by breaking it into manageable pieces </li></ul><ul><li>A work breakdown structure (WBS) is an outcome-oriented analysis of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project </li></ul><ul><li>It is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, and changes </li></ul>
  87. 87. Approaches to developing WBS <ul><li>1. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A WBS item is the responsibility of only one individual, even though many people may be working on it. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The WBS must be consistent with the way in which work is actually going to be performed; it should serve the project team first and other purposes only if practical. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Project team members should be involved in developing the WBS to ensure consistency and buy-in. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Each WBS item must be documented to ensure accurate understanding of the scope of work included and not included in that item. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The WBS must be a flexible tool to accommodate inevitable changes while properly maintaining control of the work content in the project according to the scope statement. </li></ul><ul><li>* Cleland, David I. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation , 1994 </li></ul>
  88. 88. Sample WBS: by product
  89. 89. Sample WBS: by phase
  90. 90. Sample WBS: tabular form 1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief web development team 2.0 Web Site Design 3.0 Web Site Development 4.0 Roll Out 5.0 Support
  91. 91. WBS and GANTT in Project 2000
  92. 92. CHAPTER 5 Project Time Management
  93. 93. Developing a project schedule <ul><li>Project schedules grow out of the WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Activity definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developing a more detailed WBS to complete all the work to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity sequencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves reviewing activities and determining dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory dependencies: inherent in the nature of the work; hard logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary dependencies: defined by the project team; soft logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External dependencies: involve relationships between project and non-project activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must determine dependencies in order to use critical path analysis </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Project Network Diagrams <ul><li>Project network diagram is one technique to show activity sequencing, relationships among activities, including dependencies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Network Diagram Also called activity-on-arrow </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Project Network Diagram
  96. 96. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) <ul><li>Activities are represented by boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Arrows show relationships between activities </li></ul><ul><li>Used by most PM software </li></ul>
  97. 97. Sample PDM
  98. 98. Activity Duration Estimating <ul><li>After defining activities and determining their sequence, the next step in time management is duration estimating </li></ul><ul><li>Duration includes the actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time </li></ul><ul><li>People doing the work should help create estimates, and an expert should review them </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates should be— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a set of assumptions and collected data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the current approved scope and project specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed when the scope of the project changes significantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed when there are authorized changes in resources, materials, services, and so forth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budgets are only estimates </li></ul>
  99. 99. Schedule Development <ul><li>Schedule development uses results of the other time management processes to determine the start and end date of the project and its activities </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project </li></ul>
  100. 100. GANTT Charts <ul><li>Gantt charts provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A black diamond: milestones or significant events on a project with zero duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick black bars: summary tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter horizontal bars: tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrows: dependencies between tasks </li></ul></ul>
  101. 101. Tracking using GANTT charts
  102. 102. Tracking versus Planning <ul><li>Real world is never the same as the clean paper </li></ul><ul><li>Too detailed and miss the bigger picture </li></ul><ul><li>Too high level and are late to respond to problems </li></ul><ul><li>People do not always tell the truth! </li></ul>
  103. 103. Critical Path Method <ul><li>CPM is a project network analysis technique used to predict total project duration </li></ul><ul><li>A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed </li></ul><ul><li>The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the Critical Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First develop a good project network diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the durations for all activities on each path through the project network diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The longest path is the critical path </li></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Program Evaluation and Review Technique PERT <ul><li>PERT is a network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration estimates </li></ul><ul><li>PERT uses probabilistic time estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations </li></ul><ul><li>PERT weighted average formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time)/W </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays)/6 = 12 days </li></ul></ul>
  105. 105. CHAPTER 6 Project Cost Management
  106. 106. Project Cost Management <ul><li>Costs are usually measured in monetary units like dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Project cost management includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource planning : determining what resources and quantities of them should be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost estimating : developing an estimate of the costs and resources needed to complete a project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost budgeting : allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost control : controlling changes to the project budget </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Basic Principles of Cost Management <ul><li>Profits are revenues minus expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle costing is estimating the cost of a project over its entire life </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow analysis is determining the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and costs can be tangible or intangible, direct or indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Sunk cost should not be a criteria in project selection </li></ul>
  108. 108. Resource Planning <ul><li>The nature of the project and the organization will affect resource planning. Some questions to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>How difficult will it be to do specific tasks on the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything unique in this project’s scope statement that will affect resources? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the organization’s history in doing similar tasks? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the organization have or can they acquire the people, equipment, and materials that are capable and available for performing the work? </li></ul>
  109. 109. Cost Estimating <ul><li>An important output of project cost management is a cost estimate </li></ul><ul><li>It is also important to develop a cost management plan that describes how cost variances will be managed on the project </li></ul><ul><li>3 basic tools and techniques for cost estimates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analogous or top-down: use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis the new estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bottom-up: estimate individual work items and sum them to get a total estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parametric: use project characteristics in a mathematical model to estimate costs </li></ul></ul>
  110. 110. Type of Estimate <ul><li>WAG (Wild Ass Guess) </li></ul><ul><li>Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) </li></ul><ul><li>Budgetary </li></ul><ul><li>Definitive </li></ul>
  111. 111. Earned Value Management Terms <ul><li>The planned value (PV), formerly called the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS), also called the budget, is that portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period </li></ul><ul><li>Actual cost (AC), formerly called actual cost of work performed (ACWP), is the total of direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period </li></ul><ul><li>The earned value (EV), formerly called the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP), is the percentage of work actually completed multiplied by the planned value </li></ul>
  112. 112. Earned Value Calculations 1 wk
  113. 113. Formulas
  114. 114. Earned Value Formulas To estimate what it will cost to complete a project or how long it will take based on performance to date, divide the budgeted cost or time by the appropriate index.
  115. 115. CHAPTER 7 Project Quality Management
  116. 116. What is quality management? <ul><li>The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs </li></ul><ul><li>Other experts define quality based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conformance to requirements: meeting written specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has the problem that specifications are not 100% complete or correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it was intended </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. Quality Management Processes <ul><li>Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them </li></ul><ul><li>Quality assurance: evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards while identifying ways to improve overall quality </li></ul><ul><li>Modern quality management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIX SIGMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefers prevention to inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognizes management responsibility for quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy quality experts include Deming, Juran, Crosby, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and Feigenbaum </li></ul>
  118. 118. Sample Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
  119. 119. Pareto Analysis <ul><li>Pareto analysis involves identifying the vital few contributors that account for the most quality problems in a system </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the 80-20 rule, meaning that 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto diagrams are histograms that help identify and prioritize problem areas </li></ul>
  120. 120. Standard Deviation <ul><li>Standard deviation measures how much variation exists in a distribution of data </li></ul><ul><li>A small standard deviation means that data cluster closely around the middle of a distribution and there is little variability among the data </li></ul><ul><li>A normal distribution is a bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical about the mean or average value of a population </li></ul>
  121. 121. QCC, Six Sigma, Rule of 7 <ul><li>A control chart is a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time. It helps prevent defects and allows you to determine whether a process is in control or out of control </li></ul><ul><li>Operating at a higher sigma value, like 6 sigma, means the product tolerance or control limits have less variability </li></ul><ul><li>The seven run rule states that if seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above, the mean, or increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems </li></ul>
  122. 122. Sample Quality Control Chart
  123. 123. Reducing Defects with Six Sigma
  124. 124. Cost of Quality <ul><li>The cost of quality is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the cost of conformance or delivering products requirements and fitness for use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cost of nonconformance or taking responsibility failures or not meeting quality expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Cost per Hour Downtime </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automated teller machines (medium-sized bank) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Package shipping service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone ticket sales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog sales center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airline reservation center (small airline) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  125. 125. Five Cost Categories Related to Quality <ul><li>Prevention cost : the cost of planning and executing a project so it is error-free or within an acceptable error range </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal cost : the cost of evaluating processes and outputs to ensure quality </li></ul><ul><li>Internal failure cost : cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product </li></ul><ul><li>External failure cost : cost that relates to all errors not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement and test equipment costs : capital cost equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities </li></ul>
  126. 126. Quality, Security, etc <ul><li>Quality Assurance can often be another tool for uncovering cost, schedule, and other project problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When QA says they can not evaluate because there is not enough detail, it is a red flag! </li></ul></ul>
  127. 127. CHAPTER 8 Project Human Resource Management
  128. 128. Start With Good People <ul><li>#1 Get Good People Assigned to your project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know who the good people are! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#2 You usually get less than your pay for. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap people may cost a lot! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive consultants usually do not build things </li></ul></ul>
  129. 129. Projects and HR? <ul><li>Project human resource management includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with a project. Processes include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keys to managing people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important areas related to project management include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>influence and power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  130. 130. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  131. 131. McGregor’s Theory X and Y <ul><li>Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach to management in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Theory X: assumes workers dislike and avoid work, so managers must use coercion, threats and various control schemes to get workers to meet objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y: assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of esteem and self-actualization needs </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Z: introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values </li></ul>
  132. 132. Thamhain and Wilemon’s Influence on Projects <ul><li>Authority: the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment: the project manager's perceived ability to influence a worker's later work assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Budget: the project manager's perceived ability to authorize others' use of discretionary funds </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion: the ability to improve a worker's position </li></ul><ul><li>Money: the ability to increase a worker's pay and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty: the project manager's ability to cause punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Work challenge: the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker's enjoyment of doing a particular task </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise: the project manager's perceived special knowledge that others deem important </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship: the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others </li></ul>
  133. 133. Power <ul><li>Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not otherwise do </li></ul><ul><li>Types of power include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul></ul>
  134. 134. Improving Effectiveness - Covey’s 7 Habits <ul><li>Project managers can apply Covey’s 7 habits to improve effectiveness on projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the end in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put first things first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think win/win </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek first to understand, then to be understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpen the saw </li></ul></ul>
  135. 135. Empathic Listening and Rapport <ul><li>Good project managers are empathic listeners; they listen with the intent to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Before you can communicate with others, you have to have rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Mirroring is a technique to help establish rapport </li></ul><ul><li>IT professionals often need to develop empathic listening and other people skills to improve relationships with users and other stakeholders </li></ul>
  136. 136. Organizational Planning <ul><li>Organizational planning involves identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs and processes include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project organizational charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work definition and assignment process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsibility assignment matrixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resource histograms </li></ul></ul>
  137. 137. Sample Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
  138. 138. Staff Acquisition <ul><li>Staffing plans and good hiring procedures are important in staff acquisition, as are incentives for recruiting and retention </li></ul><ul><li>Some companies give their employees one dollar for every hour a new person they helped hire works </li></ul><ul><li>Some organizations allow people to work from home as an incentive </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that people leave their jobs because they don’t make a difference, don’t get proper recognition, aren’t learning anything new, don’t like their coworkers, and want to earn more money </li></ul>
  139. 139. Resource Loading <ul><li>Resource loading refers to the amount of individual resources an existing project schedule requires during specific time periods </li></ul><ul><li>Resource histograms show resource loading </li></ul><ul><li>Over-allocation means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time </li></ul>
  140. 140. Resource Leveling <ul><li>Resource leveling is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of resource leveling is to create a smoother distribution of resource usage and reduce over allocation </li></ul>
  141. 141. Team Development: MBTI <ul><li>Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a popular tool for determining personality preferences and helping teammates understand each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four dimensions include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extrovert/Introvert (E/I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation/Intuition (S/N) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking/Feeling (T/F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment/Perception (J/P) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  142. 142. Social Styles Profiles <ul><li>People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amiable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People on opposite corners (drive and amiable, analytical and expressive) may have difficulties getting along </li></ul>
  143. 143. Reward and Recognition Systems <ul><li>Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources </li></ul>
  144. 144. Organizational Systems <ul><li>Project based: Operations consist primarily of projects. Two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others (architectural firms, engineering firms, consultants, construction contractors, government contractors, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations that have adopted management by projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have management systems such as accounting, financial, reporting and tracking in place to facilitate project management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-project based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of project-oriented systems generally makes project management more difficult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include: manufacturing companies, financial service firms, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  145. 145. Organizational Cultures and Style <ul><li>Culture is reflected in shared values, beliefs, norms, expectations, policies, procedures, view of authority relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational cultures often have a direct influence on the project. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A team proposing an unusual or high-risk approach is more likely to secure approval in an aggressive or entrepreneurial organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A project manager with a highly participative style may encounter problems in a rigidly hierarchical organization while a project manager with an authoritarian style may be equally challenged in a participative organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project managers need to be aware of the organization's cultures and style. </li></ul>
  146. 146. Organizational Structure types: <ul><li>Functional : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff are grouped by specialty, such as production, marketing, engineering, and accounting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project work is done independently within each department. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Expeditor (PE) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project expeditor acts as a staff assistant to the executive who has ultimate responsibility for the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The workers remain in their functional organizations and provide assistance as needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The PE has little formal authority. The PE's primary responsibility is to communicate information between the executive and the workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most useful in the traditional functional organization where the project's worth and costs are relatively low. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Coordinator (PC) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project expeditor is moved out of facilitator position into a staff position reporting to a much higher level in the hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project coordinator has more authority and responsibility than a PE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The PC has the authority to assign work to individuals within the functional organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The functional manager is forced to share resources and authority with the PC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The size of projects in terms of dollars is relatively small compared to the rest of the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  147. 147. Matrix : <ul><li>Maintains the functional (vertical) lines of authority while establishing a relatively permanent horizontal structure to interact with all functional units supporting the projects. </li></ul><ul><li>One result of the matrix is that workers frequently find themselves caught between the project manager and their functional manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: Improved PM control over resources, rapid response to contingencies, improved coordination effort across functional lines, people have a &quot;home&quot; after the project is over, etc. (See Principles of PM, pg. 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: Not cost effective due to excess administrative personnel, workers report to multiple bosses, more complex structure to monitor and control, higher potential for conflicts due to differing priorities, power struggles, and competition for resources, etc. (See Principles of PM , pg. 19) </li></ul>
  148. 148. Matrix Staffing! 5 1 ½ 5 6 1 5 2 4 2 1/2 1 ½ 5 ½ 2 3 ½ ½ 1 2 Software ½ 1/2 1 5 2 QA Project Z Project K Project C Project B Project A Functions
  149. 149. Matrix Types <ul><li>Weak matrix : Maintains many of the characteristics of a functional organization. The project manager's role is more like that of a project coordinator or project expeditor. </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced matrix : In-between weak and strong. The project manager has more authority than in a weak matrix. The PM is more likely to be full-time than part-time as in a weak matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong matrix : Similar in characteristics to a projectized organization. There is likely to be a department of project managers which are full-time. </li></ul>
  150. 150. Projectized : <ul><ul><li>Team members are often collocated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the organization's resources are involved in project work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project managers have a great deal of independence and authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departments either report directly to the project manager or provide services to the various projects. </li></ul></ul>
  151. 151. Project Manager Roles and Responsibilities <ul><li>Integrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM is the most likely person who can view both the project and the way it fits into the overall plan for the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must coordinate the efforts of all the units of the project team. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates to upper management, the project team, and other stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PM who fails to decipher and pass on appropriate information to the appropriate people can become a bottleneck in the project. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The PM has the responsibility of knowing what kind of messages to send, who to send them to, and translating the messages into a language understood by all recipients. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Team Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be able to solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide people from different functional areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate the project to show leadership capabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision Maker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes key decisions such as allocation of resources, costs of performance and schedule tradeoffs, changing the scope, direction or characteristics of the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is an important role with significant consequences for the project as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Creator or Builder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PM should attempt to build a supportive atmosphere so that project team members work together and not against one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to avoid unrest and negative forms of conflict by building supportive atmosphere early. </li></ul></ul>
  152. 152. General Advice on Teams <ul><li>Focus on meeting project objectives and producing positive results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure everyone understands the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fix the problem instead of blaming people </li></ul><ul><li>Establish regular, effective meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Use PM tools and reports to help focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the product is important, not the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge individual and group accomplishments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Lunch etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish accountability </li></ul>
  153. 153. Project Meals <ul><li>Can be very effective method for team building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunches where management pays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friday at 4:00 for Beer and Pizza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bagels with Lox’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be a hassle and negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christmas Dinners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Management plus/minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tailored to Team / Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pot Luck , Hotdogs/Sandwiches at the Park, Expensive Lunch </li></ul></ul>
  154. 154. More Advice <ul><li>Project managers should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat people with consideration and respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what motivates them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate carefully with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never confuse people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal is to enable project team members to deliver their best work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation and morale helps meet schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Accountability to your benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOMETIMES FIRING A TURKEY HELPS </li></ul></ul>
  155. 155. CHAPTER 9 Project Communications Management
  156. 156. Communications Planning <ul><li>Communications planning : determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Information distribution : making needed information available in a timely manner </li></ul><ul><li>Performance reporting : collecting and disseminating performance information </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative closure : generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion </li></ul><ul><li>Every project should include some type of communications management plan, a document that guides project communications </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a stakeholder analysis for project communications also aids in communications planning </li></ul>
  157. 157. Communications Management Concept <ul><li>A description of a collection and filing structure for gathering and storing various types of information </li></ul><ul><li>A distribution structure describing what information goes to whom, when, and how </li></ul><ul><li>A format for communicating key project information </li></ul><ul><li>A project schedule for producing the information </li></ul><ul><li>Access methods for obtaining the information </li></ul><ul><li>A method for updating the communications management plans as the project progresses and develops </li></ul><ul><li>A stakeholder communications analysis </li></ul>
  158. 158. Communication Interception <ul><ul><li>Lack of Clear Communications Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or temporal (time) distance between the communicator and receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties with Technical Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracting Environmental Factors (noise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detrimental Attitudes (hostility, disbelief) </li></ul></ul>
  159. 159. Conflict Handling Modes <ul><li>Withdrawal - retreat or withdraw from an actual or potential disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Forcing - the win-lose approach </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothing - de-emphasize areas of differences and emphasize areas of agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise- use a give-and-take approach </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation problem-solving - directly face a conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict often produces important results, such as new ideas, better alternatives, and motivation to work harder and more collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Groupthink can develop if there are no conflicting viewpoints </li></ul>
  160. 160. Running Effective Meetings <ul><li>Determine if a meeting can be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Define the purpose and intended outcome of the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who should attend the meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow who should, but will not! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide an agenda to participants before the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare handouts, visual aids, and make logistical arrangements ahead of time </li></ul><ul><li>Run the meeting professionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Agenda to keep it focused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Follow UP!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul>
  161. 161. Follow Up To A Meeting <ul><li>Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Agreements! </li></ul><ul><li>Action Items </li></ul><ul><li>Attendees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I prefer minutes within 24 hours and to Status the Action Items within 7 days </li></ul>
  162. 162. Sample Stakeholder Analysis for Project Communications <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Business Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Technical Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Business and Technical Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Subcontractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Subcontractor </li></ul></ul>
  163. 163. Number of Communication Channels = n(n-1)/2
  164. 164. Communication Methods
  165. 165. Communications Channels
  166. 166. Communication Role of the PM
  167. 167. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>To ensure messages are received and understood, two-way communication is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication is the process of sharing information with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic elements of interpersonal communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sender (or encoder) of the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The signal or the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver (or decoder) of the message . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process of interpersonal communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender determines what information to share and with whom and encodes the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender transmits the message as a signal to the receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver receives the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver decodes the message to determine its meaning and then responds accordingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is successful if the decoded message is the same as the sender intended. </li></ul></ul>
  168. 168. Methods of Communication <ul><li>Verbal : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely exchange of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate synthesis of message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely closure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: technical jargon especially in complex projects may make verbal communication difficult for non-technical people and other stakeholders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three stages of effective verbal communication and presentation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The introduction: Tell them what you're going to tell them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The explanation: Tell them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The summary: Tell them what you just told them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding a message without using words. Usually done through body language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Message Impact = Words (7%) + Vocal tones (38%) + Facial expressions (55%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM's may combine vocal and nonverbal factors but must be careful that the two do not present contradictory messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written communication : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main aim of business writing is that it should be understood clearly when read quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The message should be well planned, simple, clear, and direct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major steps to writing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish the basic purpose of the message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect and organize material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare draft. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check the overall structure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Send the message. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  169. 169. Macro-Barriers to Successful Communication <ul><li>Information overload: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep messages simple and direct. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide sufficient information but not too much. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of subject knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have sufficient knowledge to send message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must know level of understanding of receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meanings and interpretations may vary among different cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage team members to learn each other's cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the differences associated with status and ego within the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage open and trusting atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of links: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the number of transmission links. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more links, the more opportunity for distortion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of entropy. 23-27 % of message is lost in upward communication. </li></ul></ul>
  170. 170. <ul><li>Perceptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender's view of the receiver: how sender perceives the receiver's level of knowledge and ability to understand the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver's view of the sender: How the receiver personally feels about the sender may influence how carefully the receiver listens. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message competition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate only when you have the total attention of the recipient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to minimize noise or other factors contributing to message interference. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project jargon and terminology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define project terminology used in messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of the use of project terminology and the intended audience. </li></ul></ul>Micro-Barriers to Successful Communication
  171. 171. Types of Project Communications <ul><li>Interpersonal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with public and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal communication. </li></ul>
  172. 172. Communication Channels and Links <ul><li>The PM must recognize and understand the project's formal communication channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic channels of communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward communication (vertically or diagonally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward communication (vertically or diagonally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral communication (horizontally) </li></ul></ul>
  173. 173. Effective Listening <ul><li>Effective listening is one of the most important skills for a PM to acquire and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps develop mutual respect, rapport, and trust among project participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal listening behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking questions to clarify and gather more information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing what the speaker has said. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing at intervals what the speaker has said to confirm what you have understood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking the speaker for examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertaining the speaker's feelings and acknowledging them. (&quot;You seem angry.&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing the speaker to the most appropriate listener. (&quot;George can best help you with that.&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal listening behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being expressive and alert. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving closer to the speaker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for the intention behind the speaker's communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions, touching, use of space, use of time. </li></ul></ul>
  174. 174. Barriers to Effective Listening <ul><li>The mismatch between our speed of talking (100-400 words per minute) and our speed of thinking (approx. 600 words per minute) makes effective listening tough. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the personal and environmental barriers that influence the overall effectiveness of communication include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor listeners: People do not talk freely when they know the audience isn't listening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to the message: People don't like to listen to something that is contrary to their preconceived ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical distractions: telephone calls, people coming in and out of office / meetings, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  175. 175. Guidelines for Active Listening <ul><li>Stop talking! </li></ul><ul><li>Show the speaker you are ready to listen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence: signals you are ready to listen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few distractions: shut the door, put the phone on hold, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A receptive attitude: empathize with the speaker's point of view. </li></ul></ul>
  176. 176. Performance / Status Reports <ul><li>Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reports describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project forecasting predicts future project status and progress based on past information and trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status review meetings often include performance reporting </li></ul></ul>
  177. 177. Developing a Communications Infrastructure <ul><li>A communications infrastructure is a set of tools, techniques, and principles that provide a foundation for the effective transfer of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools include e-mail, project management software, groupware, fax machines, telephones, teleconferencing systems, document management systems, and word processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques include reporting guidelines and templates, meeting ground rules and procedures, decision-making processes, problem-solving approaches, and conflict resolution and negotiation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles include using open dialog and an agreed upon work ethic </li></ul></ul>
  178. 178. Project Portal / Website <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Versions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance Cost! </li></ul></ul>
  179. 179. Final Project Report <ul><li>A project or phase of a project requires closure </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative closure produces </li></ul><ul><li>– project archives </li></ul><ul><li>– formal acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>– lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Final Free Lunch! </li></ul>
  180. 180. CHAPTER 10 Project Risk Management
  181. 181. What is Risk? <ul><li>A dictionary definition of risk is “the possibility of loss or injury” </li></ul><ul><li>Project risk involves understanding potential problems that might occur on the project and how they might impede project success </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management is like a form of insurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is an investment </li></ul></ul>
  182. 182. Risk Utility <ul><li>Risk utility or risk tolerance is the amount of satisfaction or pleasure received from a potential payoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility rises at a decreasing rate for a person who is risk-averse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who are risk-seeking have a higher tolerance for risk and their satisfaction increases when more payoff is at stake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The risk neutral approach achieves a balance between risk and payoff </li></ul></ul>
  183. 183. Project Risk Management <ul><li>The goal of project risk management is to minimize potential risks while maximizing potential opportunities. Major processes include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management planning: deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk identification: determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting their characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative risk analysis: characterizing and analyzing risks and prioritizing their effects on project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative risk analysis: measuring the probability and consequences of risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk response planning: taking steps to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to meeting project objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk monitoring and control: monitoring known risks, identifying new risks, reducing risks, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk reduction </li></ul></ul>
  184. 184. Questions in a Risk Management Plan <ul><li>The risk questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>How Much? </li></ul>
  185. 185. Other Types of Risk <ul><li>Market Risk: Will the new product be useful to the organization or marketable to others? Will users accept and use the product or service? </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Risk: Can the organization afford to undertake the project? Is this project the best way to use the company’s financial resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Risk: Is the project technically feasible? Could the technology be obsolete before a useful product can be produced? </li></ul>
  186. 186. Risk Identification <ul><li>Risk identification is the process of understanding what potential unsatisfactory outcomes are associated with a particular project </li></ul><ul><li>Several risk identification tools and techniques include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Delphi technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul></ul>
  187. 187. Knowledge Area <ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul>
  188. 188. Quantitative Risk Management <ul><li>Assess the likelihood and impact of identified risks to determine their magnitude and priority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in Hardware System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk quantification tools and techniques include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability/Impact matrixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Top 10 Risk Item Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert judgment </li></ul></ul>
  189. 189. Graphical View of Risk
  190. 190. Decision Tree and EMV <ul><li>A decision tree is a diagramming method used to help you select the best course of action in situations in which future outcomes are uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>EMV is a type of decision tree where you calculate the expected monetary value of a decision based on its risk event probability and monetary value </li></ul>
  191. 191. Simulation <ul><li>Simulation uses a representation or model of a system to analyze the expected behavior or performance of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Carlo analysis simulates a model’s outcome many times to provide a statistical distribution of the calculated results </li></ul><ul><li>To use a Monte Carlo simulation, you must have three estimates (most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic) plus an estimate of the likelihood of the estimate between the optimistic and most likely values </li></ul>
  192. 192. Results
  193. 193. Risk Response Planning <ul><li>After identifying and quantifying risk, you must decide how to respond to them </li></ul><ul><li>Four main strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk avoidance: eliminating a specific threat or risk, usually by eliminating its causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk acceptance: accepting the consequences should a risk occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk transference: shifting the consequence of a risk and responsibility for its management to a third party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk mitigation: reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the probability of its occurrence </li></ul></ul>
  194. 194. Risk Monitoring & Control <ul><li>Monitoring risks involves knowing their status </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling risks involves carrying out the risk management plans as risks occur </li></ul><ul><li>Workarounds are unplanned responses to risk events that must be done when there are no contingency plans </li></ul><ul><li>The main outputs of risk monitoring and control are corrective action, project change requests, and updates to other plans </li></ul><ul><li>Risk response control involves executing the risk management processes and the risk management plan to respond to risk events </li></ul><ul><li>Risks must be monitored based on defined milestones and decisions made regarding risks and mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes workarounds or unplanned responses to risk events are needed when there are no contingency plans </li></ul>
  195. 195. CHAPTER 11 Project Procurement Management
  196. 196. Project Procurement Management <ul><li>Procurement planning: determining what, when, and how much to procure </li></ul><ul><li>Solicitation planning: documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources </li></ul><ul><li>Solicitation: obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Source selection: choosing from among potential vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Contract administration: managing the relationship with the vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Contract close-out: completion and settlement of the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Make-or-buy analysis: determining whether a particular product or service should be made or performed inside the organization or purchased from someone else. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often involves financial analysis </li></ul></ul>
  197. 197. Types of Contracts <ul><li>Unit price contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Time and material contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Cost reimbursable </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed price or lump sum </li></ul>
  198. 198. Statement of Work SOW <ul><li>A statement of work is a description of the work required for the procurement </li></ul><ul><li>Many contracts, mutually binding agreements, include SOWs </li></ul><ul><li>A good SOW gives bidders a better understanding of the buyer’s desires </li></ul>
  199. 199. SOW <ul><li>Scope of Work: Describe the work to be done to detail. Specify the hardware and software involved and the exact nature of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Work: Describe where the work must be performed. Specify the location of hardware and software and where the people must perform the work </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Performance: Specify when the work is expected to start and end, working hours, number of hours that can be billed per week, where the work must be performed, and related schedule information. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliverables Schedule: List specific deliverables, describe them in detail, and specify when they are due. </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable Standards: Specify any company or industry-specific standards that are relevant to performing the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance Criteria: Describe how the buyer organization will determine if the work is acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Requirements: Specify any special requirements such as hardware or software certifications, minimum degree or experience level of personnel, travel requirements, and so on. </li></ul>
  200. 200. Solicitation Planning <ul><li>Solicitation planning involves preparing several documents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request for Proposals: used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers where there are several ways to meet the sellers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests for Quotes: used to solicit quotes for well-defined procurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invitations for bid or negotiation and initial contractor responses are also part of solicitation planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request For Qualification: used to get a set of interested vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solicitation involves obtaining proposals or bids from prospective sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations can advertise to procure goods and services in several ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approaching the preferred vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approaching several potential vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advertising to anyone interested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A bidders’ conference can help clarify the buyer’s expectations </li></ul>
  201. 201. Source Selection <ul><li>Source selection involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evaluating bidders’ proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choosing the best one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negotiating the contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>awarding the contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is helpful to prepare formal evaluation procedures for selecting vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers often create a “short list” </li></ul>
  202. 202. Contract Administration <ul><li>Contract administration ensures that the seller’s performance meets contractual requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts are legal relationships, so it is important that legal and contracting professionals be involved in writing and administering contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Many project managers ignore contractual issues, which can result in serious problems </li></ul>
  203. 203. Contract Close Out <ul><li>Contract close-out includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product verification to determine if all work was completed correctly and satisfactorily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative activities to update records to reflect final results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>archiving information for future use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procurement audits identify lessons learned in the procurement process </li></ul>
  204. 204. Cost Reimbursable Contracts <ul><li>Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus </li></ul><ul><li>Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a fixed fee payment usually based on a percentage of estimated costs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost plus percentage of costs (CPPC): the buyer pays the seller for allowable performance costs plus a predetermined percentage based on total costs </li></ul>
  205. 205. Chapter 12 Project Management as a Profession
  206. 206. PM Career Development Path
  207. 207. Project Management Institute (PMI) <ul><li>Project Management Institute (PMI®) </li></ul><ul><li>Not-for-profit professional association </li></ul><ul><li>Over 80,000 members worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Established 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Global Organization Headquartered in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newtown Square, Pennsylvania USA </li></ul></ul>
  208. 208. PMP Certification Requirements <ul><li>Four main requirements for earning PMP certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having experience working in the field of project management. You need 4,500 hours with a baccalaureate degree and 7,500 without a degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signing a PMP Certificate and Candidate Agreement and Release form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completing the PMP Certification Exam Application and paying a fee of $555 for non-PMI members and $405 for members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing the PMP exam </li></ul></ul>
  209. 209. PMP Certification (by industry)
  210. 210. PM Needs Some Domain Knowledge <ul><li>No one understands everything well! </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to be effective project management if you understand (or once understood) one the domains well! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality etc.. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People Skills are required! </li></ul>
  211. 211. Discussion <ul><li>??? </li></ul>

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