A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO DEPRESSION Windsor University School of Medicine Psychiatry Rotation Attending Physician – Dr. Archibald Presentation by:OLADAPO SAMSON OLUWABUKOLA 1ST AUGUST, 2012
Overview Telling someone with a depression & mood disease things like Cheer up. Get over it. Move forward, is like telling a blind person Just look harder
What Is Depression? Depression is more than just a “down mood.” It’s a condition that can be characterized by the persistence of several symptoms, including feelings of sadness, emptiness, and isolation. But the good news is that doctors are developing a better understanding of depression, which has led to new treatments to help people struggling with depression regain control of their lives.
What Is Depression? Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a persons thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well- being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, hel pless, worthless, guilty, irritable, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable; experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions; and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or
It is commonly thought that about one in four women and one in six men will experience an episode of clinical depression over their lifetime. This of course depends on how you define clinical depression. Feeling down from time to time is a natural part of life, but for almost 1 out of every 5 of us, this temporary down moment turns to depression and it can last a long time. Depression affects almost everything from our emotions to physical health and our relationships and work. The good news is, today we have a better
What Causes Depression? There is no single cause for depression. Experts believe that a combination of three factors—genetics, the environment, and perhaps (although this has never been clearly proven) chemical imbalances in the brain—work together to cause depression. Depression can strike anyone regardless of age, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, or gender; however, large-scale research studies have found that depression is about twice as common in women as in men.
What Causes Depression?A normal, functioning brain is amessaging system that controls allbodily functions. Communication withinthe brain is enabled through billions ofcells called neurons. These cells sendand receive messages from the rest ofyour body and with each other. To dothis, they release chemicals calledneurotransmitters, which communicatewith other cells across a gap betweenthem. This gap is called a synapse.When the brain is working normally, the
What Causes Depression? But, when a person has depression, the chemical messengers are speculated to perhaps either not function correctly, or not be present in normal quantities. However, it should be noted that there has never been clear substantiation of a definitive ―chemical imbalance‖ that is responsible for depression. What causes this complex disorder of mood and somatic
Types of Depression There are a number of different types of depression: Major Depression Dysthymia Bipolar Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder Postpartum Depression
Major Depression Also known as „Unipolar’ Depression This is the most common type of depression. It is considered severe and symptoms last for weeks or months.
Dysthymia This condition is less severe than major depression, but each episode lasts for a longer period of time, often several years.
Bipolar Disorder Unlike the other types of depression, this condition involves an “up” mood called “mania,” in addition to “down” moods. For this reason, this condition is sometimes called manic-depressive illness. They have issues with relationship and work, sometimes coinciding.
Seasonal Affective Disorder(SAD) This condition occurs at a certain time of the year, usually winter. It is also known as Winter Depression. It is a pattern of “down moods” caused by changes in the weather and decreased exposure to sunlight.
Postpartum Depression This is caused by hormonal changes after the delivery of a baby. It is much more severe than the usual “baby blues,” which affects many women for a short period after giving birth.
Postpartum Depression Extreme concern and worry about the baby or a lack of interest or feelings for the baby Feeling unable to love the baby or your family Anger toward the baby, your partner, or other family members Anxiety or panic attacks Fear of harming the baby; these thoughts may be obsessive, and may be afraid to be left alone in the house with the baby. Sadness or excessive crying Feelings of doubt, guilt, helplessness, hopelessness, or restlessness Lethargy or extreme fatigue
Symptoms of Depression The following are the classic symptoms of depression: Loss of interest in normal daily activities Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, or sadness, including crying spells Loss of energy and the ability to concentrate Problems sleeping Feeling useless or inadequate for an extended period Significant weight loss or gain, or extended periods of indigestion Fatigue or headaches for extending periods Decrease in sexual activity for an extended period of time
Observations If you have these several of these symptoms for two or more weeks, seek medical care to determine if you are suffering from depression. If you have thoughts of harming yourself or thoughts of suicide, you should seek medical care immediately. Of course, it is normal for a person to feel down after a period of major stress or loss such as the death of a loved one. The is considered the "grieving process". But, if the “down” mood does not improve after several months, or if it worsens, this may be a sign that the normal grieving process has turned into a clinical depression.