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Tutorials 6

  1. 1. XP New Perspectives on Creating Web Pages with HTML Tutorial 6: Creating Web Page Forms Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 1 Tutorial 6
  2. 2. XP Tutorial Objectives • Learn about CGI scripts • Review the various parts of an online form • Create form elements • Create a hidden field on a form • Work with form attributes • Learn how to send data from a form to a CGI script • Learn how to send form information without using CGI scripts Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 2 Tutorial 6
  3. 3. XP An Example of a Form This figure shows a sketch of a proposed registration form. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 3 Tutorial 6
  4. 4. The Interaction between a XP Web Page Form and a CGI Script This figure shows how a Web page form interacts with a CGI script. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 4 Tutorial 6
  5. 5. XP Working with CGI Scripts • HTML supports tags for creating forms, however, it does not process the information. • Use CGI (Common Gateway Interface) script to process form information. • CGI script runs on the Web server and receives data from a form and uses it to perform a set of tasks. • Web page designers may not be able to create or edit CGI scripts. – Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and universities may provide CGI scripts that their customers and student can use on their Web sites, but which they cannot directly access or modify Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 5 Tutorial 6
  6. 6. XP CGI Scripts • Among the many things CGI scripts made possible are: – online database containing customer information – catalogues for ordering and purchasing items online – databases containing product support information – determining the number of times a Web page has been accessed – server-side image maps – message boards for online discussion forums – e-mail for discussion groups Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 6 Tutorial 6
  7. 7. XP CGI Script Restrictions • There are several reasons to restrict direct access to CGI scripts: – CGI scripts are actually running a program directly on the server – security risks from computer hackers – drain on system resources caused by large numbers of programs running simultaneously • System administration are understandably careful to maintain strict control over their servers and systems. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 7 Tutorial 6
  8. 8. XP CGI Scripts and Computer Languages • CGI scripts can be written in a variety of different computer languages. Some of the most commonly used languages are: – AppleScript – ASP – C/C++ – Perl – TCL – The UNIX shell – Visual Basic • The computer language used depends on the Web server. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 8 Tutorial 6
  9. 9. XP Form Components and Elements text box First Name Last Name This figure shows Address #1 a form that Address #2 contains various City State Zip control elements Country commonly used in Item Purchased Purchase Date Web page forms. drop-down Serial Number group list box box Used For (check one) Network Operating System (check all that apply) Netware Home Banyan Vines Business radio Religious or Charitable Institution Windows Government IBM Lan Server check buttons Educational Institution PC/NFS boxes text Comments?: area form Send Registration Cancel button Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 9 Tutorial 6
  10. 10. XP Form Control Elements • Control elements that are commonly used: – text boxes for text and numerical entries – selection lists for long lists of options, usually appearing in a drop-down list box – radio buttons, also called option buttons, to select a single option from a predefined list – check boxes to specify an item as either present or absent – groups boxes to organize form elements – text areas for extended entries that can include several lines of text – buttons that can be clicked to start processing the form Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 10 Tutorial 6
  11. 11. XP Form Control Elements Continued • Each control element in which the user can enter information is called a field. • Information entered into a field is called the field value, or simply the value. • In some fields, users are free to enter anything they choose. • Other fields, such as selection lists, limit the user to a predefined list of options. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 11 Tutorial 6
  12. 12. XP The <form> Tag • The <form> tag identifies the beginning and end of a form. • A single page can include several different forms, but you cannot nest one form inside another. • The general syntax of the <form> tag is: <form attributes> form elements and layout tags </form> • Between the <form> and </form> tags, place the various tags for each of the fields in the form. • Use standard HTML tags to specify the form’s appearance. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 12 Tutorial 6
  13. 13. XP The <form> Tag Continued • A single Web page can contain multiple forms, the <form> tag includes the name attribute. • The name attribute identifies each form on the page. • The name attribute is also needed for programs that retrieve values from the form. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 13 Tutorial 6
  14. 14. XP Adding the <form> Tag The <form> tag includes attributes that control how the form is processed, including information on what CGI script to use, how the data is to be transferred to the script, and so forth. This figure shows the form name “reg.” Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 14 Tutorial 6
  15. 15. XP Structuring a Form • Horizontal lines can provide structure to a form by separating sections. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 15 Tutorial 6
  16. 16. XP Layout of a Registration Form This figure shows sections that are separated from each other with a horizontal line. Structuring a form in this fashion can make it easier to identify the different sections. contact information product information usage information comments buttons Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 16 Tutorial 6
  17. 17. XP Input Types This figure Type Description shows other type=”button” Display a button which can be clicked to perform an action from a script supported type=”checkbox” Display a check box HTML input types. type=”file” Display a browse button to locate and select a file type=”hidden” Create a hidden field, not viewable on the form type=”image” Display an inline image which can be clicked to perform an action from a script type=”password” Display a text box in which hides text entered by the user type=”radio” Display a radio (option) button type=”reset” Display a button which resets the form when clicked type=”submit” Display a button which submits the form when clicked type=”text” Display a text box in which displays text entered by the user Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 17 Tutorial 6
  18. 18. XP Working with Text Boxes • Text boxes are created using the <input> tag. • The general syntax is: <input type=“type” name=“name” id=“id”> – type specifies the type of input field – name and id attributes identifies the input field for the CGI script • To create a text box, you would enter the tag: <input type=“text”> • If the type attribute is not included, the Web browser assumes, by default, that you want to create a text box. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 18 Tutorial 6
  19. 19. XP The name and id Attribute • The name and id attributes of the <input> tag identifies the input field for the CGI script. • The name attribute represents the older standard, but it is deprecated in HTML 4.01, however, some CGI scripts still recognize only the name attribute • The newest standard uses the id attribute. • The id attribute is required, if a form contains form labels. • It is best to duplicate the information by using both the name and id attributes. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 19 Tutorial 6
  20. 20. XP Creating a Text Box • To create a text box, use the following HTML code: <input name=“name” id=“id” value=“value” size=“value” maxlength=“value”> – name and id attributes identify the field – value attribute assigns a default value to the text box – size attribute defines the width of the text box in number of characters – maxlength attribute defines the maximum number of characters allowed in the field Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 20 Tutorial 6
  21. 21. Name/Value Pairs sent from XP the Web Form to the CGI Script This figure shows when form data is sent to the CGI script, the script receives the name or id of each field in the form paired with whatever value the user entered in the field. The script then processes the data according to each name/value pair. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 21 Tutorial 6
  22. 22. XP CGI Script Names • Some CGI scripts require a particular field or groups of fields. – for example, a CGI script whose purpose is to e-mail form values to another user might require a field named “email” that contains the e-mail address of the recipient • Before using a CGI script, check the documentation for any requirements and then design your form accordingly. • Case is important in field names. – a field named “email” might not be interpreted by the CGI script in the same way as a field named “EMAIL” Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 22 Tutorial 6
  23. 23. XP Text Boxes on the Form Text boxes are blank and do text box not contain any accompanying text, a text description needs to be inserted, such as “Last Name”, adjacent to each box so that the user knows what to enter. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 23 Tutorial 6
  24. 24. XP Controlling the Size of a Text Box • By default, all text boxes are 20 characters wide. • The syntax for changing the size of a text box is: <input size=“value”> – value is the size of the text box in characters Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 24 Tutorial 6
  25. 25. XP Setting the Width of Text Boxes This figure shows an example of code for setting the width of text boxes. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 25 Tutorial 6
  26. 26. XP Result of Setting the Width of Text Boxes Once changes text box width set to are made, save 30 characters the changes to a file, and then reload or refresh it in the browser. Netscape users may have to close and open the file for the changes to the Web form to take effect. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 26 Tutorial 6
  27. 27. XP Setting the Maximum Length for Text Input • Setting the width of a text box does not limit the number of characters the box can hold. – if a user enters text longer than the box’s width, the text scrolls to the left – the user cannot see the entire text, but all of it is sent to the CGI script for processing • The syntax for setting the maximum length for field input is: <input maxlength=“value”> – value is the maximum number of characters that can be stored in the field Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 27 Tutorial 6
  28. 28. XP Specify the Maximum Length for a Field This figure shows an example of limiting the width of the zip code field to five characters. no more than 5 characters are allowed in this text box Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 28 Tutorial 6
  29. 29. XP Setting a Default Value for a Field • When the same value is entered into a field, it may make sense to define a default value for a field. • Default values can save time and increase accuracy for users of a Web site. • To define a default value, use the following syntax: <input value=“value”> – value is the default text or number that is displayed in the field Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 29 Tutorial 6
  30. 30. XP Defining a Default Value for a Field If customers from countries other than the United States use this Web form, they can remove the default value by selecting the text and pressing the Delete key. default value Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 30 Tutorial 6
  31. 31. XP Creating a Password Field • A password field is a text box in which the characters typed by the user are displayed as bullets or asterisks i.e. ****. • The syntax for creating a Password field is: <input type=“password”> • Using a password field should not be confused with having a secure connection. • The password itself is not encrypted. • The password field only acts as a mask for a field entry as it is entered. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 31 Tutorial 6
  32. 32. XP Working with Form Labels • HTML allows you to formally link a label with an associated text element for scripting purposes. • The syntax for creating a form label is: <label for=“id”>label text</label> – id is the value of the id attribute for a field on the form – label text is the text of the label – you must bind the label to the id attribute of the field and not the name attribute Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 32 Tutorial 6
  33. 33. XP Working with Form Labels • Labels can simplify the data entry process by allowing a user to click on either the control element or the element’s label to enter data. • Labels allow users to write scripts to modify their content for interactive forms. • The <label> tag is part of the HTML 4.0 specifications, however, it is not currently supported by Netscape. • The Netscape browser, and versions of the Internet Explorer browser prior to 4.0, ignore the <label> tag, but still display the label text. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 33 Tutorial 6
  34. 34. XP Creating a Label for the fname Field This figure shows a label for the fname field. value of the id attribute for the first name field Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 34 Tutorial 6
  35. 35. XP Creating a Selection List • A selection list is a list box from which a user selects a particular value or set of values. • Selection lists are good to use when there is a fixed set of possible responses. • Selection lists help prevent spelling mistakes and erroneous entries. • A selection list is created using the <select> tag. • The <option> tag is used to specify individual selection items. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 35 Tutorial 6
  36. 36. XP Creating a Selection List This figure shows HTML code for creating a selection list. selection list field name items in the selection list Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 36 Tutorial 6
  37. 37. XP Using a Selection List Your selection list might look slightly different depending on the browser and browser version. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 37 Tutorial 6
  38. 38. Using the <select> XP and <option> Tags • The general syntax for the <select> and <option> tags is: <select name=“name” id=“id”> <option> item1 <option> item2 . . . </select> – name and id attribute identify the selection field – each <option> tag represents an individual item in the selection list – the text in the selection list is indicated by the text in item1, item2, and so forth • The <option> tag is a one-sided tag. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 38 Tutorial 6
  39. 39. XP Modifying the Appearance of a Selection List • HTML provides several attributes to modify the appearance and behavior of selection lists and options. • By default, the <select> tag displays one option from the selection list, along with a list arrow to view additional selection options. • The number of options displayed can be modified with the size attribute. • The syntax of the size attribute is: <select size=“value”> Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 39 Tutorial 6
  40. 40. XP Modifying the Appearance of a Selection List Continued – value is the number of items that the selection list displays in the form – by specifying a value greater than 1, the selection list changes from a drop-down list box to a list box – if the size attribute is equal to the number of options in the selection list, the scroll bar is either not displayed or is dimmed Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 40 Tutorial 6
  41. 41. XP Selection Lists with Different Size Values This figure shows selection lists with different size values. size = "1" size = "4" size = "7" size = "9" Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 41 Tutorial 6
  42. 42. XP Making Multiple Selections • When using multiple selections, users are not limited to a single selection from a selection list. • Adding the multiple attribute to the <select> tag allows multiple selections from a list. • The syntax for this attribute is: <select multiple> • A common method to make multiple selections from a selection list is to hold down a specific key while making selections. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 42 Tutorial 6
  43. 43. XP Making Multiple Selections Continued • The Windows operating system, multiple selections can be made as follows: – for noncontiguous selections, press and hold the Ctrl key while you make your selections – for a contiguous selection, select the first item, press and hold the Shift key, and then select the last item in the range • Check and verify that the CGI scripts used are designed to handle multiple selection lists. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 43 Tutorial 6
  44. 44. XP Working with Option Values • By default, a form sends the values that are displayed in the selection list to the CGI script. • Instead of sending an entire text string, an abbreviation or code can be sent to the CGI script. • Specify the value that is sent to the CGI script with the value attribute. • Use the selected attribute to specify which item in the selection is selected, or highlighted, when the form is displayed. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 44 Tutorial 6
  45. 45. XP Working with Option Groups • The most recent releases of HTML allows you to organize selection lists into distinct groups called option groups. • The syntax for creating an option group is: <optgroup label=“label”> – label is the label assigned to the option group – the text for the label appears in the selection list above each group of items but is not a selectable item from the list Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 45 Tutorial 6
  46. 46. XP Option Groups Internet Explorer and Netscape versions prior to 6.0 display the selection list without the group labels. option group label option a single group label option group a single option group Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 46 Tutorial 6
  47. 47. XP Working with Radio Buttons • Radio buttons display a list of choices from which a user makes a selection. • Only one radio button can be selected at a time. • The syntax to create a radio button is: <input type=“radio” name=“name” id=“id” value=“value”> – name identifies the field containing the radio button – id attribute identifies the specific option. Only required if you intend to use a field label with the radio button – value attribute indicates the value sent to the CGI script, if that radio button is selected by the user Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 47 Tutorial 6
  48. 48. XP Working with Radio Buttons Continued • The name attribute must be included, because it groups distinct radio buttons together. – selecting one radio button in the group automatically deselects all of the other radio buttons in that group • Insert descriptive text next to the button. • Enclose text within a label tag to allow the user to select the radio button or label. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 48 Tutorial 6
  49. 49. XP Creating Radio Buttons This figure shows an example of HTML code that creates radio buttons for party affiliations. In this sample code, the value sent to the CGI script does not match the field label. If the user selects the Republican radio button, the value “gop” is sent to the CGI script paired with the field name “party.” Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 49 Tutorial 6
  50. 50. XP Selection Lists vs. Radio Buttons • If you have a long list of options, use a selection list. • If you want to allow users to select more than one option, use a selection list with the multiple attribute. • If you have a short list of options, and only one option is allowed at a time, use radio buttons. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 50 Tutorial 6
  51. 51. XP Creating a Group Box • A group box labels an entire collection of radio buttons. • A group box is a box placed around a set of fields that indicates that they belong to a common group. • The syntax for creating a group box is: <fieldset> <legend align=“align”>legend text</legend> collection of fields </fieldset> Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 51 Tutorial 6
  52. 52. XP Creating a Group Box Continued – the <legend> tag is used to display a legend on the group box – legend text specifies the text for that legend – the align attribute specifies where the legend is placed in the box • align values are “top” (the default), “bottom”, “left”, and “right” • browsers only support “top” and “right” options at this time Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 52 Tutorial 6
  53. 53. XP Creating a Group Box and Legend start of group box This figure shows group box legend an example of a group box applied to a set of radio buttons. resulting radio buttons and group box Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 53 Tutorial 6
  54. 54. XP Group Box Size • There is no attribute to control the size of a group box. • The box’s height will be large enough to accommodate the fields and labels in the field set. • The width is the width of whatever space remains on the Web page. • To set the width to a specific value use a table cell to place the group box and set the width of the cell. – group boxes cannot extend across table cells; all of the fields in the field set must be placed within a single cell Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 54 Tutorial 6
  55. 55. XP Working with Check Boxes • A check box is either selected or not, there is only one check box per field. • Check boxes are created using the following syntax: <input type=“checkbox” name=“name” id=“id” value=“value”> – name and id attribute identify the check box – the value attribute specifies the value that is sent to the CGI script when the check box is selected • The <input> tag for a check box does not display any text. • Check boxes are not selected by default. – to do this, add the checked attribute to the <input> tag Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 55 Tutorial 6
  56. 56. XP Adding Check Boxes This figure shows different check boxes. The user can click either the check box or the label associated with the check box to select and deselect. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 56 Tutorial 6
  57. 57. Group Boxes for Radio Buttons XP and Check Boxes Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 57 Tutorial 6
  58. 58. XP Creating a Text Area • To create a larger text area for a text box, use the tag: <textarea name=“name” id=“id” rows=“value” cols=“value”> default text </textarea> – rows and cols attributes define the dimensions of the text box – the rows attribute indicates the number of lines in the text box • Default text can be specified in the text box when the form is initially displayed. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 58 Tutorial 6
  59. 59. XP Creating a Text Area This figure shows an example of a text area with default text. default text dimensions The <textarea> area text of text area tag is a two-sided tag, which means that it has an opening tag <textarea>, and a closing tag, </textarea>. resulting text area Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 59 Tutorial 6
  60. 60. XP Wrap Attribute Values The text entered in a text area wraps to the next line when it exceeds the width of the box. To control how a browser wraps text to a new line use the wrap attribute. This figure shows the three possible wrap options. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 60 Tutorial 6
  61. 61. XP The wrap Attribute for Text • Set the value of the wrap attribute to either “soft” or “hard” to allow text to wrap within the text box. – the “hard” setting preserves any line wrapping that takes place in the text box and the “soft” setting does not. • If no value for the wrap attribute is specified, a value of “soft” is used. • For comment fields, use the <textarea> tag with the wrap attribute set to “soft” so that the user’s comments wrap to the next line in the box. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 61 Tutorial 6
  62. 62. XP Comment Text Area In this figure the text box includes a vertical scroll bar, so that a user can scroll to see the hidden text, if needed. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 62 Tutorial 6
  63. 63. XP Creating Form Buttons • Another type of control element is one that performs an action. In forms, this is usually done with a button. • Buttons can be clicked to: – run programs – submit forms – reset the form to its original state Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 63 Tutorial 6
  64. 64. XP Creating a Push Button • One type of button, called a push button, is created using the <input> tag as follows: <input type=“button” value=“text”> – text is the text that appears on the button • By themselves, push buttons perform no actions in the Web page. • To create an action, write a script or program that runs automatically when the button is clicked. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 64 Tutorial 6
  65. 65. XP Creating Submit and Reset Buttons • A submit button is a button that submits the form to the CGI script for processing. • A reset button resets the form to its original (default) values. • The syntax for creating these two buttons is: <input type=“submit” value=“text”> <input type=“reset” value=“text”> – value attribute defines the text that appears on the button Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 65 Tutorial 6
  66. 66. XP The name and value Attributes • The name and value attributes can be used for push, submit, and reset buttons. • Use these attributes when the form contains multiple buttons and a program that processes the form needs to distinguish one button from another. – for example, a Web page advertising a shareware program might include three buttons: • one used to download the program • another used to retrieve information • the third to cancel the form Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 66 Tutorial 6
  67. 67. XP Creating a Form Button The figure shows HTML tags for buttons that download a program, retrieves information, and resets the form to its original values. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 67 Tutorial 6
  68. 68. XP Creating Buttons with the <button> Tag • Buttons created with the <input> tag do not allow the Web page designer to control the appearance of the button. • For greater artistic control over the appearance of the button, use the <button> tag. • The syntax of the <button> tag is: <button name=“name” value=“value” type=“option”> button text and HTML tags </button> – name attribute specifies the name of the button – value attribute sends to a CGI script – type attribute specifies the button type (submit, reset, or button) Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 68 Tutorial 6
  69. 69. XP Using the <button> Tag The figure shows how to create a button that the button type is a contains formatted simple push button text and an inline image. The default value for contents the type attribute is of the “button”. Within the button <button> tags you can place whatever HTML tags you wish to format the button’s button image appearance. This includes inline images. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 69 Tutorial 6
  70. 70. XP Creating File Buttons • A file button is used to select files so that their contents can be submitted for processing to a CGI script. • The contents of the file are not displayed--only the file’s location. • A programmer can then use that information to retrieve a file and use it for whatever purpose is required by the script. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 70 Tutorial 6
  71. 71. XP Using a File Button The figure shows an example of using the file 1. User clicks the Browse button button to return the location of a file named 2. Selects a file from the “report.doc.” Choose File dialog box 3. The filename and location are automatically placed in the text box Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 71 Tutorial 6
  72. 72. XP Creating Image Fields • Inline images can act like submit buttons, so that when the user clicks the image, the form is submitted. • The syntax for this type of control element is: <input type=“image” src=“URL” name=“text” value=“text”> – URL is the filename and location of the inline image – name attribute assigns a name to the field – value attribute assigns a value to the image • When the form is submitted to the CGI script, the coordinates of where the user clicked are attached to the image’s name and value in the format: namex_coordinate, value.y_coordinate. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 72 Tutorial 6
  73. 73. XP Using an Image Control with a CGI Script Once the CGI script receives data, the action it performs depends on whether the user clicked within the image. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 73 Tutorial 6
  74. 74. XP Working with Hidden Fields • A hidden field is added to the form but not displayed in the Web page. • Because the field is hidden, it can be placed anywhere between the opening and closing <form> tags. • The syntax for creating a hidden field is: <input type=“hidden” name=“name” value=“value> • Place all hidden fields in one location to make it easier to read and interpret the HTML code. • Include a comment describing the purpose of the field. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 74 Tutorial 6
  75. 75. XP Adding a Hidden Field This figure shows an example of the hidden field code. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 75 Tutorial 6
  76. 76. XP Working with Form Attributes • To specify where to send the form data and how to send it add the following attributes to the <form> tag: <form action=“URL” method=“option” enctype=“text”> – URL specifies the filename and location of the CGI script that process the form – method attribute specifies how your Web browser sends data to the CGI script – enctype attribute specifies the format of the data stored in the form’s field Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 76 Tutorial 6
  77. 77. XP The method Attribute • There are two possible values for the method attribute: “get” or “post”. – the “get” method (the default) packages the form data by appending it to the end of the URL specified in the action attribute – the “post” method sends form data in a separate data stream, allowing the Web server to receive the data through what is called “standard input” – the “post” method is considered the preferred way of sending data to a Web server – The “post” method is also safer, because some Web servers limit the amount of data sent via the “get” method and will truncate the URL, cutting off valuable information Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 77 Tutorial 6
  78. 78. XP The enctype Attribute • The exact meaning of the enctype attribute is a technical issue. • The default enctype value is “application/x-www-form- urlencoded.” • Another enctype value that is often used is “multipart/form-data,” which allows the form to send files to the Web server along with any form data. • The most basic way of encoding data is to use “text/plain,” which encodes the data as simple text. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 78 Tutorial 6
  79. 79. XP Specifying Where and How to Send Form Data This figure shows the CGI script that processes the form is located at the URL http://www.langear.com/cgi/mailer (a fictional address) and uses the “post” method. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 79 Tutorial 6
  80. 80. XP Form Values The Web browser presents a page, an example of which is shown in this figure, displaying the name of each field in the form and the value assigned to it. At the same time, the CGI script formats a mail message to be sent to the address you entered. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 80 Tutorial 6
  81. 81. XP Using the “mailto” Action • Use the “mailto” action to send form information via e- mail without using a CGI script. • This action accesses the user’s own e-mail program and uses it to mail form information to a specified e-mail address, bypassing the need for using CGI scripts on a Web server. • The syntax of the “mailto” action is: <form action=“mailto:e-mail_address” method=“post” enctype=“text/plain”> – e-mail_address is the e-mail address of the recipient of the form Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 81 Tutorial 6
  82. 82. Using the “mailto” XP Action Continued • Not all browsers support the “mailto” action. – for example, versions of Internet Explorer earlier than 4.0 and Netscape Navigator 3.0 do not • Another concern is that messages sent via the “mailto” action are not encrypted for privacy. • The recipient’s email address is revealed to the user. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 82 Tutorial 6
  83. 83. XP Mail Message Created Using the “mailto” Action This figure shows an e-mail message that the “mailto” action generated for a registration form. The format of the mail message may look different depending on the browser or e-mail software. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 83 Tutorial 6
  84. 84. XP Specifying the Tab Order • Users navigate through a Web form using the Tab key. – the Tab key moves the cursor from one field to another in the order that the field tags are entered. • Add the tabindex attribute to any control element in the form to specify the tab order. • With each element assigned a tab index number, the cursor moves through the fields from the lowest index number to the highest. – for example, to assign the tab index number “1” to the fname field, enter the code: <input name=“fname” tabindex=“1”> Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 84 Tutorial 6
  85. 85. XP Tab Order and Browsers • Browsers that do not support the tab order feature simply ignores the tabindex attribute and continues to tab to the fields in the order that they appear in the HTML code. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 85 Tutorial 6
  86. 86. XP Specifying an Access Key • An access key is a single key that you type in conjunction with the Alt key for Windows users or the Command key for Macintosh users, to jump to one of the control elements in the form. • Add the accesskey attribute to any of the control elements to create an access key. • To create an access key for the lname field, enter the following code: <input name=“lname” accesskey=“1”> – if a user types Alt+l (or Command+1 for Macintosh users), the control element for the lname field is selected Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 86 Tutorial 6
  87. 87. XP Specifying an Access Key Continued • Use letters that are not reserved by the browser. – for example, Alt_f is used by Internet Explorer to access the File menu • When an access key is used, provide some visual clue about the key’s existence. – the accepted method is to underline the character corresponding to the access key. For example, “Last Name” Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 87 Tutorial 6
  88. 88. XP Tutorial 6 Summary • Worked with Web page forms. • Overview of scripts. • CGI scripts. • Created simple input boxes. • Worked with properties. • Controlled the appearance of input boxes. • Worked with Web form elements and components. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 88 Tutorial 6
  89. 89. XP Tutorial 6 Summary Continued • Controlled the appearance and behavior of various elements. • Examined form buttons, form images and hidden fields. • Focused on how information is transferred from the Web page form to the CGI script. • Worked with various form actions and methods. Creating Web Pages with HTML, 3e 89 Tutorial 6

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