Timeline of Microprocessor Evolution


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Timeline of Microprocessor Evolution

  1. 1. TIMELINE of COMPUTER EVOLUTION Reference: http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html Fourth Generation (1971-Present) - microprocessor • 1971 - Gilbert Hyatt at Micro Computer Co. patented the microprocessor; Ted Hoff at Intel in February introduced the 4-bit 4004, a VSLI of 2300 components, for the Japanese company Busicom to create a single chip for a calculator; IBM introduced the first 8-inch "memory disk", as it was called then, or the "floppy disk" later; Hoffmann-La Roche patented the passive LCD display for calculators and watches; in November Intel announced the first microcomputer, the MCS-4; Nolan Bushnell designed the first commercial arcade video game "Computer Space" • 1972 - Intel made the 8-bit 8008 and 8080 microprocessors; Gary Kildall wrote his Control Program/Microprocessor (CP/M) disk operating system to provide instructions for floppy disk drives to work with the 8080 processor. He offered it to Intel, but was turned down, so he sold it on his own, and soon CP/M was the standard operating system for 8-bit microcomputers; Bushnell created Atari and introduced the successful "Pong" game • 1973 - IBM developed the first true sealed hard disk drive, called the "Winchester" after the rifle company, using two 30 Mb platters; Robert Metcalfe at Xerox PARC created Ethernet as the basis for a local area network, and later founded 3COM • 1974 - Xerox developed the Alto workstation at PARC, with a monitor, a graphical user interface, a mouse, and an ethernet card for networking • 1975 - the Altair personal computer is sold in kit form, and influenced Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak • 1976 - Jobs and Wozniak developed the Apple personal computer; Alan Shugart introduced the 5.25-inch floppy disk • 1977 - Nintendo in Japan began to make computer games that stored the data on chips inside a game cartridge that sold for around $40 but only cost a few dollars to manufacture. It introduced its most popular game "Donkey Kong" in 1981, Super Mario Bros in 1985 • 1978 - Visicalc spreadsheet software was written by Daniel Bricklin and Bob Frankston • 1979 - Micropro released Wordstar that set the standard for word processing software • 1980 - IBM signed a contract with the Microsoft Co. of Bill Gates and Paul Allen and Steve Ballmer to supply an operating system for IBM's new PC model. Microsoft paid $25,000 to Seattle Computer for the rights to QDOS that became Microsoft DOS, and Microsoft began its climb to become the dominant computer company in the world. • 1984 - Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh personal computer January 24.
  2. 2. • 1987 - Bill Atkinson of Apple Computers created a software program called HyperCard that was bundled free with all Macintosh computers. This program for the first time made hypertext popular and useable to a wide number of people. Ted Nelson coined the terms "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1965 based on the pre-computer ideas of Vannevar Bush published in his "As We May Think" article in the July 1945 issue of The Atlantic Monthly. Apple I of 1976 , from Smithsonian Wozniak and Jobs introduced Apple NMAH II in 1977, from History of Apple Intel 4004 microprocessor in 1971, from Intel Museum MITS Altair 8800A 1975 from SDCM - cu Apple II personal computer 1978 with IBM 5151 personal computer 1981, from Seagate ST-251 5-inch 40 MB hard Memorex Model 101 hard drive, 10 5.25-inch Disk drives, from SDCM - cu SDCM - cu drive 1978, from SDCM - cu MB, 1983, from SDCM - cu 5. Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) • 1991 - World-Wide Web (WWW) was developed by Tim Berners-Lee and released by CERN. • 1993 - The first Web browser called Mosaic was created by student Marc Andreesen and programmer Eric Bina at NCSA in the first 3 months of 1993. The beta version 0.5 of X Mosaic for UNIX was released Jan. 23 1993 and was instant success. The PC and Mac versions of Mosaic followed quickly in 1993. Mosaic was the first software to interpret a new IMG tag, and to display graphics along with text. Berners-Lee objected to the IMG tag, considered it frivolous, but image
  3. 3. display became one of the most used features of the Web. The Web grew fast because the infrastructure was already in place: the Internet, desktop PC, home modems connected to online services such as AOL and Compuserve • 1994 - Netscape Navigator 1.0 was released Dec. 1994, and was given away free, soon gaining 75% of world browser market. • 1996 - Microsoft failed to recognized the importance of the Web, but finally released the much imporoved browser Explorer 3.0 in the summer. Nokia 9210 Communicator is part of the latest wave of web cell phones world's first production microchips made of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistors and copper wiring by IBM (AP 5/22/00) The raveMP player sells for $269 and can store more than an hour of body scans to buy clothes MP3 music digital insertion ad digital insertion ad Michael Crichton displays a Microsoft Reader handheld computer with his latest bestselling novel "Timeline" in Microsoft Reader form on the screen (AP 5/23/00)
  4. 4. Apple G4 Linux wearable computers Jeff Bezos of amazon.com Links: • Apple Museum • Chronology of Personal Computers by Ken Polsson • Communication History 6 chapters from IEEE • History of Computing by John A. N. Lee, from Virginia Tech • History of Home Computer Games on the history and evolution of home video games from 1975 Pong to the present. • History of Hypertext chronology from John Barger • Hobbes' Internet Timeline, 1957-present • Internet Timeline using Java from PBS • Laser printer history • Memex and Beyond hypermedia web site from the NSF Graphics and Visualization Center • Media Milestones at USD • Pagemaker history • PostScript history • RAMAC history from Magnetic Disk Heritage Center in San Jose • William Gibson • World Wide Web - Beyond the Basics by Marc Abrams includes History of Hypertext • Yahoo Index for Computers & Internet History Articles: • Brader, Mark. "A Chronology of Digital Computing Machines (to 1952)" 9 April 1994. • Gray, George. UNIVAC I: The First Mass-Produced Computer. Unisys History Newsletter, Volume 5, Number 1, January 2001 • Muuss, Mike. Archive of Computing History