TELECOMMUNICATIONS and NETWORKS All Organizations Need to ...


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  • CLASSROOM EXERCISE Understanding Networks This web site offers great content on understanding networks
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  • BitTorrent is an excellent example of peer-to-peer Discuss the Apply Your Knowledge project on BitTorrent (AYK project 7 – Contemplating Sharing)
  • Is your PC a client or a server? Chances are most student computers are clients on the universities network Can your PC be a client or a server? Both, any PC can be used as a server – you simply install the server operating system
  • Why is a router so important to a business? The router is used to receive packets from the Internet
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  • Why is interoperability so important in today's world? With so many different worldwide manufactures of computer components it is imperative that all of the devices work together
  • Are you are using a cable to connect to the Internet? If so, is it Ethernet?
  • Do you use TCP/IP? If you are on the Internet, yes, you are using TCP/IP.
  • Organizations use diverse network technologies that may not be compatible with the technologies of other organizations. Because so many different networks are connected, they must have a common protocol to communicate. The protocol of the Internet is TCP/IP. TCP control s the packets. IP controls the addressing of individual machines. Packets travel independently to their destination, sometimes following different paths and arriving out of order. The destination computer uses TCP to reassemble the packets based on their identification and sequencing information. Every computer that uses the Internet must run IP software. The IP defines how a packet must be formed and how a router must forward each packet. TCP helps guarantee delivery of the packets.
  • Do you use TCP/IP? If you are on the Internet, yes, you are using TCP/IP.
  • Do you use TCP/IP? If you are on the Internet, yes, you are using TCP/IP.
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  • CLASSROOM EXERCISE Cell Phones and Airplanes Break your students into groups and ask them to research the Internet to find the reasons why people are required to turn off their cell phones when they are on an airplane. There are two reasons why cell phones are not allowed on an airplane: The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) bans the use of cell phones on airplanes because they could wreak havoc with cell phone systems on the ground. Signals from your cell phone, when you use it on or near the ground, reach just a few cell phone nodes near you and the node that is getting the strongest signal picks up your call. If you move, while driving your car or walking, the next node picks up the call. From the air, however, your phone's signal could reach miles, hitting many nodes at once, all with equal strength. Plus, you are moving at several hundred miles an hour. Cell phone systems were not designed to handle that. The Federal Aviation Administration, for its part, supports the FCC ban for its own reasons. They fear cell phones may interfere with navigation and other aircraft systems. Incident reports submitted by airline crews also demonstrate the potential for trouble. NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's "Passenger Electronic Devises Database Report Set" -- which could be subtitled "passengers behaving badly" -- contains several reports of incidents involving passengers whose "personal electronic devices" seemed to create disturbances in aircrafts' electronic systems. Review the IM for a complete listing
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  • TELECOMMUNICATIONS and NETWORKS All Organizations Need to ...

    2. 2. All Organizations Need to Share and Communicate Information... <ul><li>Externally with other organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Internally among employees. </li></ul>- the electronic movement of information over public or private networks - a communications, data exchange, and resource-sharing system created by , or protocols, so that they can work together .
    3. 3. Benefits of a NETWORK <ul><li>1. The ability with other people ( is the most of network communications) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ability to share </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Ways different types of networks are differentiated <ul><li>Size and Proximity of the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN versus WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer versus Client/Server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols Used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet for LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus, Star, Ring, Hybrid, Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial, Twisted-pair, Fiber-optic, Wireless media </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Network Proximity <ul><li>L Network --Connects computers in relatively </li></ul><ul><li>W Networks -- Connects computers that may be dispersed among a number of buildings, or even in different cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet --International Network of Networks. </li></ul>WAN
    6. 6. Types of LANs <ul><li>P </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each user can share their computer’s resources with other LAN users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only resources on specific computers called “servers” can be shared </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Peer-to-peer (P2P) network - any network and in which computers in the network to the public files located on all other workstations </li></ul>
    8. 8. Peer-to-Peer LAN Advantages <ul><li>Control is distributed to the LAN users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users who own data have control over who accesses it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive and easy to install </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You just need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A network operating system on both computers, (any version of since 95). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network resources are distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disaster on one user’s computer doesn’t destroy all the data on the network </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Peer-to-Peer LAN Disadvantages <ul><li>Control is distributed to the LAN users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one person or group can know what resources are available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one person or group is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance is poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the computers share resources and some computers can even access the hard drives of other computers, the result is that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The performance of a PC also slows down when someone on the network accesses it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, peer-to-peer networks are </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Client - a computer that is designed to from a server </li></ul><ul><li>Server - a computer that is dedicated to providing information in response to external requests </li></ul><ul><li>Client/server network - model for applications in which the takes place on a , while the is handled by the </li></ul>
    11. 12. The Client/Server Model Storage and management of the data needed by the application Data Management Presentation The to the application Business Logic Actual business rules implemented
    12. 13. Client/Server Model: A Business View <ul><li>The different Client/server implementations differ according to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the processing for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the processing of occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the (DBMS) and are located </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Flexible Applications Server Client Business Logic Data Management Business Logic Presentation Business Logic Data Management Presentation
    14. 15. Any Combination is Possible Design Server Client Production Server Business Logic Data Management Presentation Data Management Business Logic
    15. 17. <ul><li>Application can be structured to match organizational requirements since it is both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C an change the implementation of this model as the organization changes in size since the Client/Server model provides the to whatever is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data access is regardless of where the data is stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate programs are more easily maintained and can be reused. </li></ul><ul><li>One for all of the and easier to </li></ul>Client/Server Advantages
    16. 18. Client/Server LAN Disadvantages <ul><li>All shared resources reside on computers call “servers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a disaster occurs on the server all the data is in jeopardy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the server malfunctions, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually require expensive hardware and extra staff to manage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only of client/server costs are tied up in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining is in the form of - both IT professionals and knowledge workers. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) - the operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major client/server NOSs are Windows NT, Windows 2000, Novell NetWare, Linux, and Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P - occurs when the sending computer divides a message into a number of efficiently sized units called packets, each of which contains the address of the destination computer </li></ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also “sit” (serving as a ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it onward toward its destination </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Network Data Transfer Process <ul><li>Network operating system on the source machine to be sent into segments of predetermined length called </li></ul><ul><li>Network operating system on the source uses a communications protocol to </li></ul><ul><li>Network Operating System on the source sends packets over the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Packets are routed as necessary through the network depending on the transmission mediums, transmission signal characteristics and access control methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Operating system on the destination receives packets over the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Operating system on the destination by looking at the communication protocol information. Requests retransmission of any missing data. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Connecting Networks Routers are responsible for that messages take from the sending computer to the destination computer. Router The connection between a LAN and a larger network is usually accomplished using a device called a Router WAN or Backbone LAN LAN
    20. 22. WANs Once a network is linked to a , it becomes part of the Internet community. High Speed Backbone Backbone is usually a type of network that has
    21. 24. Wide Area Network R R R R R R R R R R R R R Packet Switched Network Data is packaged in for transmission. Each packet follows through the network.
    22. 25. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Protocol - a that specifies the as well as the during transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Following a certain , allows for interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two primary communications protocols are TCP/IP and Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is used for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet is used by computers in a to communicate </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. Ethernet <ul><li>Ethernet - a physical and data layer technology for LAN networking </li></ul>
    24. 27. Ethernet <ul><li>Defines the standards used in a LAN. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to describe the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W (Co-axial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How bits are physically transmitted using those media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access control rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data transmission speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Details and works on the principle of and </li></ul><ul><li>Helps insure the compatibility of different devices so that many people can attach to a common cable. </li></ul>
    25. 28. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - provides the technical as well as for large numbers of private network </li></ul><ul><li>The TCP/IP protocol suite is made up of over protocols. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The two are TCP and IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP provides for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP provides the mechanism </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP / IP) <ul><li>Allows computers to regardless of their or hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks information into data packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassembles packets when received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks for lost packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each computer given a unique IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    27. 30. TCP/IP’s four-layer reference model <ul><li>The layer allows users and applications to access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F protocol (FTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T provides terminal emulation that allows a “ terminal with ” to be able to connect to a host computer (which will control everything). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple network management Protocol (SNMP) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. TCP/IP’s four-layer reference model <ul><li>The layer handles </li></ul><ul><li>The layer handles the packets ( , etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The layer details how is through the networking </li></ul>
    29. 32. How Does the Internet Work?? #1 #2 Browser communicates with to get #3 Browser connects to specific server, uses GET request to ask for file you wish to see. #4 Server sends HTML text to your browser. HTML tags are read and page displayed.
    30. 33. Network Topology <ul><li>The of computers in a network. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul>
    31. 34. Bus Topology <ul><li>All computers are connected /cable. </li></ul><ul><li>One device transmits a communications signal, which is broadcast to the entire network </li></ul><ul><li>Most LAN topology. Relatively </li></ul>
    32. 35. Ring Topology <ul><li>All devices connected to one channel in the form of a closed loop (ring). Each device is connected directly to two other devices. </li></ul><ul><li>All messages in one direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively and , but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Used primarily in that use token ring software. </li></ul>
    33. 36. Star Topology <ul><li>All devices are , called a hub. The hub . All network traffic the hub. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively easy to install and manage. </li></ul><ul><li>B can occur because of the must through the , and if the hub goes down, the entire network is down. </li></ul>
    34. 37. Hybrid Topology <ul><li>Groups of star-configured workstations that are connected to a liner bus cable, combining characteristics of bus and star topologies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Wireless Topology <ul><li>Computers are connected by to a wireless access point (which is directly connected to a wired LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be within a certain number of feet from the access point to communicate wirelessly ( depending on the technology being used) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Network Transmission Media <ul><li>Refers to the various types of media used to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire media (guided) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission material manufactured so that signals will be and will behave . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three most commonly used types include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted-pair wiring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber optic (or optical fiber) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless media (unguided) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Network Communications Media
    38. 41. Network Communications Media Twisted Pair Wire <ul><li>C cable - a better-constructed version of the phone twisted-pair cable. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Network Communications Media <ul><li>Wireless communications (radio waves, microwaves, infrared) media radiate information into the air, either very narrowly beamed or in many directions like ripples from a pebble tossed into a pond. </li></ul>Coaxial Cable Fiber-Optic Cable
    40. 43. Business Networks <ul><li>You can build your own wired network or you can from a national provider. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual private network (VPN) - a way to use the telecommunication infrastructure (e.g., ) to provide secure access to an organization’s network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T software is used to create a connection between two different servers ( ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data packets are </li></ul></ul>
    41. 44. Telecommunications Methods <ul><li>Data are generally expressed in thousands or millions of bits per second (kbps/mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Phone Lines: use a : but very . Handles only analog signals. 28.8-56 kbps </li></ul><ul><li>D ( ): regular divided into voice (analog) and information (digital channels). Always-on connection. Can make phone calls while online. </li></ul><ul><li>C : Operates over Provides a constant connection to the Internet, although its speed depends on how many users (such as your neighbors) are online. </li></ul>
    42. 45. Researchers explore scrapping and rebuilding the Internet <ul><li>In order to address the problems that were not envisioned when the Internet was initially created, some are suggesting rebuilding the Internet using a approach. </li></ul><ul><li>S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet was designed to be open and flexible and all users were assumed to be trustworthy. Internet protocols were not designed to authenticate users and their data. Firewalls and spam filters are now being used to control security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: data not passed along until </li></ul></ul>
    43. 46. <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, computers were fixed in location so IP addresses were assigned to devices in a fixed location. Wireless mobile computing is presenting challenges related to data flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: R so that addresses are based on the device, rather than the location. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubiquity (called in our class notes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the Internet was first designed, there were relatively few computers connected to it. The addressing system has become strained due to the proliferation of personal computers and mobile devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution: assign and have those same devices connected to an addressed gateway, which is then connected to routers and the rest of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result is fewer devices to keep track of and improved efficiency. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These changes may happen over the next 10-15 years. They (expected to cost as computer hardware and software and Internet infrastructure are replaced) </li></ul>
    44. 47. The End The slides that follow this slide contain additional details related to the material found in some of your earlier slides. It is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED THAT YOU STUDY THESE ADDITIONAL SLIDES because they reinforce other concepts that you have already seen (and that you might see on an upcoming exam)
    45. 48. Network Communications <ul><li>Network Card --Allows a PC to communicate with the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signal --Discrete signal, series of ons and offs. Computer thinks in terms of zeros (off)and ones (on). Very abrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Analog Signal --Continuous wave-like communication. Readings can fall within a range: temperature, humidity, air pressure, radio signals, phone signals, TV signals, electricity. </li></ul>
    46. 49. <ul><li>Don’t we have a problem?? </li></ul><ul><li>Humans and their devices think in terms of analog: continuous waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers think in terms of digital signals: abrupt stops and starts. </li></ul><ul><li>MODEM: Modulator/Demodulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>converts the digital signals of your computer into an analog form that can be transmitted over a telephone line and then converts the analog signal back to digital signals at the other end of the transmission. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. Modems
    48. 51. Telecommunications Methods
    49. 52. Network Communications Media <ul><li>Twisted Pair Wire </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Optical Cable (Optical Fiber) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular transmissions </li></ul>
    50. 53. Twisted Pair Wire <ul><li>Two or more strands of copper wire twisted together, covered by insulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for direct connections over short distances in LANs </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Signal Carries an electrical signal </li></ul><ul><li>Other Characteristics Cheap, but slow. Not used very frequently anymore. Does not protect well against electrical interference </li></ul><ul><li>Other Uses Telephone lines inside your home </li></ul>
    51. 54. Coaxial Cable <ul><li>Used for direct connections over short distances in LANs but over a slightly larger distance than twisted pair. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Signal Carries an electrical signal </li></ul><ul><li>Other Characteristics Better signal quality and more capabilities than twisted pair. More reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Uses Cable TV </li></ul>
    52. 55. Optical Fiber / Fiber Optics <ul><li>Used for longer distance connections in WANs that will carry large amounts of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Signal Glass fibers transmit information as pulses of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Characteristics Faster and more expensive than TP or Coax. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Uses High speed, cross country telephone lines. Also being installed in cities as an infrastructure for a wide variety of communications uses. </li></ul>
    53. 56. <ul><li>Fiber-optic Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many extremely thin strands of glass or plastic bound together in a sheathing which transmits signals with light beams. Can be used for voice, data, and video. </li></ul></ul>Fiber-Optic Cable
    54. 57. Infrared <ul><li>Used for Wireless, short range LAN connections </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Signal Infrared beam of light. Requires line of sight communication. Uses a red light that you can’t see to transmit info. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Characteristics Advantage is lack of wires connecting devices, portability. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Uses many types of remote controls, wireless keyboards and mice. </li></ul>
    55. 58. Microwave <ul><li>Used for long range WAN connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Characteristics Require line-of-sight connection. Signal can be boosted through the use of repeater devices located between transmitter and receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Uses: Used by satellites, cable companies, cellular phones, broadcast radio. </li></ul>
    56. 59. The Internet <ul><li>First developed by the US Department of Defense in 1969. Over time, international connections were made, and the Internet really took off during the early 1990s when the technology behind web pages was developed and corporate users were given access to it, and the Internet has evolved into its present form. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same thing. There are many different resources and services on the Internet, and the World Wide Web is just one of the resources found on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Internet communications were text-only, but now Internet communications can also be in the form of audio, video, and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of computers on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers FTP Servers (used to upload and download files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mail Servers Internet Relay Chat (IRC) Servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 60. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Dial up (dial in) using the telephone lines and a modem. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired (LAN): Local Area Network : network card required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable modems and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Network (wireless LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCs and laptop computers could access the Internet without relying on physical wiring. Wireless Access Point/Base Station Required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use wireless phones to retrieve email, access the Internet, or a corporate database. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the buildings on campus are in wireless zones. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 61. World Wide Web <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext is used to connect or link documents together : hyperlinks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web browsers are the software capable of understanding HTML files and HTML coding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer: approximately 89% market share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safari: found on Macs: faster than IE, can read web pages aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Netscape Family of Browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape: dominant in web’s early days, before IE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla: 2% market share </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FireFox: 7 % market share: more stable and secure than IE, can be found on computers running Windows, Linux or the Macintosh operating system . </li></ul></ul></ul>