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  1. 1. CSC 110 – Intro. to Computing Prof. Matthew Hertz WTC 207D / 888-2436 [email_address]
  2. 2. Announcements <ul><li>Lecture: “ Why White Kids Love Hip-Hop and the King Legacy &quot; at Montante Cultural Center, Tuesday at 8PM </li></ul><ul><li>Service Learning Partnership Fair at Regis from 11 – 2 today! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Service Learning Component
  4. 4. Computer Prehistory <ul><li>16 th Century BCE – abacus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple device used to perform calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on training, knowledge of user </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Computer Prehistory <ul><li>17 th century – Pascaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented by Blaise Pascal using from design by Hero of Alexandria (2 CE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gear-driven machine performing whole-number addition & subtraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on same principle as a car’s odometer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required people to sit and crank machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost more to run than paying the people it replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pascal was only man who could make repairs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Computer Prehistory <ul><li>17 th Century - Pascaline </li></ul>
  7. 7. Computer Prehistory <ul><li>18 th century CE – Jacquard’s loom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wove cloth, silk, and other materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knots passing through the holes in cards created patterns woven into fabric </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Computer Prehistory <ul><li>18 th century CE – Jacquard’s loom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weavers often attacked these looms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially used shoes to destroy the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason for the word sabotage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sabot” is French for shoe </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Early Computer Attempt <ul><li>1833 – analytical engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by Charles Babbage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced by Ada, Countess of Lovelace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used same punch cards as Jacquard’s loom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to early computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could store up to 1000 50-digit numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punch cards defined program to run </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could run more complex programs than early machines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Early Computer Attempt <ul><li>1833 – analytical engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam power turned handles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wouldn’t need humans to run </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was too complex for time to be built </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Tabulating Machines <ul><li>1890 – Hollerith tabulating machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by train conductors punching tickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punch cards stored the data to be tabulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine could not be programmed or do advanced arithmetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only ability was to track sums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original customer was US Census </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatically improved census processing time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollerith’s formed IBM to sell tabulators </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Binary Machines <ul><li>1936 --- Konrad Zuse develops Z1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First automatic calculator based in binary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in Zuse’s parent’s apartment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked with whole- and decimal-numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z1, Z2, & Z3 destroyed by Allied bombing runs </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Binary Machines <ul><li>1936 --- Konrad Zuse develops Z1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained memory to remember 64 numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each multiplication took 5 seconds </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. First Computers <ul><li>Mid 20 th Century CE – early “computers” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many long calculations needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firing tables for gunners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bombing runs for pilots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For efficiency, USA and UK used rooms (usually) filled with women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women were cheaper to hire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some used mechanical calculators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This was considered a mark of shame! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1939-1942 – ABC Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First electronic, digital computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built by John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was not programmable, only performed specific computations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Original notes for design written on the back of a cocktail napkin </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1939-1942 – ABC Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighed 800lbs, used 300+ vacuum tubes, & 1 mile of wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each calculation took 15 seconds </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1944 – Mark I Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Howard Aiken & IBM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could add, subtract, multiply and divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included subroutines to compute logarithms and trigonometric functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grace Hopper became first person to debug a computer (it was a moth) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Only 6 electronic digital computers would be required to satisfy the computing needs of the entire US” – Howard Aiken, 1947 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1944 – Mark I Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighed 5 tons, 55’ long, 8’ high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored 72 numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 additions/second; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 - 5 seconds per multiplication </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1943-1946 – ENIAC Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War effort was using up all “computers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENIAC project trying to make electronic computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs set by external switches and dials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took weeks to physically reprogram machines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 women hired as first programmers </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1943-1946 – ENIAC Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighed 30 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17,460 vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 million soldered joints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed 5000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions per second </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1953 – 701 released, IBM’s 1 st computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM 701 seen as threat to IBM’s main tabulator business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored 256 numbers in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 19 ever made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rented by businesses for $15,000 per month </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM sold 1,800 IBM 650s, which worked with IBM punch card equipment, from 1954-1962 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1953 – 701 released, IBM’s 1 st computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed 2200 multiplications per second </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 1955 – The Year In Computers <ul><li>ENIAC turned off after 12 years of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated having done more arithmetic than entire human race had done prior to 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First demo of ERMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System that enabled computers to read and process checks using numbers at bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First 32 units delivered in ’59; used into ’70s </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Electronic Computers <ul><li>1956 – IBM 301 is first computer to work with “hard drive” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained space for 5 million numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk leased for $35,000/year (computer extra) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Smaller Computers <ul><li>1960 – Digital PDP-1 released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not need its own room! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost only $120,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1962 ran first computer game, Spacewar </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Computer Mouse <ul><li>1964 -- Douglas Englebart invents mouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called a mouse because it has a tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited use --- few computers had a display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not even shown publicly until 1968 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Computer Networks <ul><li>1969 – ARPAnet created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forerunner to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected 3 computers early on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crashed in the middle of its first use! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not get to g typing in “log in” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many uses were not developed until later </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail was not created until 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could use to run another computer from 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File transfers did not exist until 1983 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Growth in Computer Chips <ul><li>1970 – Intel 1103 is first public RAM chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds 128KB of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1971 – Intel 4004 is first microprocessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is first “computer on a chip” that we normally think of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matched the power of the ENIAC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to run Pioneer 10 spacecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First man-made object to leave solar system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1974 – Intel releases 8080 runs at 2MHz </li></ul>
  29. 29. Computer Networks <ul><li>1973 – Robert Metcalfe created ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First (of many) discoveries from Xerox PARC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First network to allow local machines to share information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea was to enable 100s of computers to connect and drive the latest Xerox invention, the laser printer </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Development of GUI <ul><li>1973 -- Alto developed at Xerox PARC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First GUI system ever developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never turned into commercial system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily influenced future systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apple developers saw on 1979 tour </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Home Computers <ul><li>1974 - 1975 – First home computers sold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altair was most famous computer released </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could hold 256 numbers in RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required TV for use as a display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not include any software (even an OS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Owner had to put machine together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $400 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small company, Microsoft, formed by 2 college kids to sell BASIC compiler for Altair </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Altair Computer
  33. 33. Growth of the Home Computer <ul><li>1976 – Apple I demoed for Homebrew Computer Club </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could store 8192 numbers (8KB) in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included keyboard, but needed TV for display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $666.66 per machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold 200 units over 10 months </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Apple I Computer
  35. 35. Growth of the PC <ul><li>1977 – Apple II shown at West Coast Computer Faire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contained 4KB of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First personal computer to include color graphics (included 16 colors!), but still needed TV for monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used audio cassette for storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold for $1298 </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Apple II Computer
  37. 37. Important Applications <ul><li>1979 – First spreadsheet, VisiCalc, released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First serious application that could run on a personal computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked PC as a machine for serious business people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner” – Dan Bricklin </li></ul>
  38. 38. Important Applications <ul><li>1979 – First popular word processor, WordStar, releases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best selling application for early 1980s </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Player Enters the Market <ul><li>1981 -- IBM PC released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First PC fully built from off-the-shelf parts and commercially available operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled lots of copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named Times “Man of the Year” </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Player Enters the Market <ul><li>1981 – IBM PC released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used 4.77MHz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default had16KB of memory, but could be expanded to 256KB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color monitor was optional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $1565 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ 640KB should be enough for anyone” – Bill Gates </li></ul>
  41. 41. First Portable Computer <ul><li>1981 – Osborne Portable Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was machine that fit under airplane seat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included 5” screen, but weighed 75 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $1795 and sold 10,000 per month </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Updated Computer Line <ul><li>1983 – Apple IIe released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used 1MHz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included 64KB of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $1400 per machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became one of the best selling computers of all time </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Personal Computer Revolution <ul><li>1983 – Apple Lisa, 1 st GUI-based home computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used 5 MHz processor, 512KB of memory, 5MB hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12” monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $9995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Macintosh released in 1984 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Personal Computer Revolution <ul><li>1983 – Apple Lisa released </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – Apple Macintosh released </li></ul>
  45. 45. Other Important Computer Dates <ul><li>1983 – Intel releases 80386 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran at 16MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1983 – 10 million computers used in US </li></ul><ul><li>1986 – 30 million computers used in US </li></ul><ul><li>1988 – Soundblaster released </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – Intel releases 80486DX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran at 25MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Intel chip capable of multiprocessing </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Other Important Dates <ul><li>1990 – The World becomes first company selling Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – Tim Berners-Lee launches “World Wide Web” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to facilitate remove collaboration between physicists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jan. 1993 – 50 web servers in existence </li></ul><ul><li>1994 – First banner ads on web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start of World Wide Web commercialization </li></ul></ul>