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  1. 1. Chapter 3: Planning Network Protocols and Compatibility
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Explain basic network concepts, including network terms, types of networks, and network cards </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the NDIS and ODI network driver specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the communications protocols used in Windows 2000 Server, including TCP/IP, NWLink, NetBEUI, DLC, and AppleTalk </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Plan network binding order, change the binding order, and bind and unbind protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Plan how to implement protocols on different types of networks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Protocol <ul><li>A protocol consists of guidelines for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How data is formatted into discrete units called packets and frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How packets and frames are transmitted across one or more networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How packets and frames are interpreted at the receiving end </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Packets and Frames <ul><li>Packets and frames are units of data transmitted from one networked computer or device to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Although packets and frames are often used to have the same meaning, there is a difference. Packets operate at a higher communication layer and contain routing information. </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Sections in Packets and Frames <ul><li>Header </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Trailer or footer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Packet and Frame Format Figure 3-1 Basic packet and frame format
  8. 8. Network Design <ul><li>The basic design of a network is its topology </li></ul><ul><li>Topology: The physical layout of the cable and the logical path followed by network packets and frames sent on the cable </li></ul>
  9. 9. Local Area Network <ul><li>Local area network (LAN): Joins computers, printers, and other computer equipment within a limited service area and generally employs only one topology </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example of a LAN Figure 3-2 A LAN in a building
  11. 11. Metropolitan Area Network <ul><li>Metropolitan area network (MAN): A network that links multiple LANs within a large city or metropolitan area </li></ul>
  12. 12. Example of a MAN Research hospital University chemistry building Pharmaceutical company MAN connecting buildings in a city
  13. 13. Enterprise Network <ul><li>Enterprise Network: A network that often reaches throughout a large area, such as a college campus, a city, or across several states. A distinguishing factor of an enterprise network is that it brings together an array of network resources such as many kinds of servers, mainframes, printers, network devices, intranets, and the Internet </li></ul>
  14. 14. Typical Resources in an Enterprise Network Figure 3-3 Resources in an enterprise network
  15. 15. Wide Area Network <ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN): A far-reaching system of networks that can extend across state lines and across continents </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example of a WAN WAN across a continent
  17. 17. Network Interface Card Communication Medium Options <ul><li>Coaxial cable (thick and thinnet) </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted-pair (shielded and unshielded) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless (infrared, radio wave, microwave, satellite) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Connecting a Medium to a NIC Figure 3-4 Connecting cable to a NIC
  19. 19. Device Address <ul><li>Each NIC has a physical or device address that is burned into a PROM on the card </li></ul><ul><li>Media access control (MAC) address is another way of describing the device address </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ethernet and Token Ring <ul><li>Ethernet: A network transport system that uses a carrier sensing and collision detection method to regulate data transmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Token ring: A network transport method that uses a token, which is passed from node to node, to coordinate data transmissions </li></ul>
  21. 21. NDIS <ul><li>Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS): A set of standards developed by Microsoft and 3COM for network drivers that enables communication between a NIC and a protocol, and that enables the use of multiple protocols on the same network </li></ul>
  22. 22. NDIS Architecture Figure 3-5 Binding a protocol to a NIC
  23. 23. ODI <ul><li>Open Datalink Interface (ODI) driver: A driver that is used by Novell NetWare networks to transport multiple protocols on the same network </li></ul>
  24. 24. Microsoft-Supported Communication Protocols
  25. 25. Microsoft-Supported Protocols (continued)
  26. 26. TCP/IP <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) portion performs extensive error checking to ensure that data is delivered successfully </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) portion consists of rules for packaging data and ensuring that it reaches the correct destination address </li></ul>
  27. 27. Dotted Decimal Notation <ul><li>Dotted Decimal Notation : An addressing technique that uses four octets, such as 100000110.11011110.1100101.00000101, converted to decimal (e.g.,, to differentiate individual servers, workstations, and other network devices. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Unicasting and Multicasting <ul><li>In a unicast, a transmission is sent to each client that requests a file or application, such as a multimedia presentation </li></ul><ul><li>In a multicast, a transmission is sent to all requesting clients as a group (reducing the total network traffic) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Unicasting and Multicasting Compared Figure 3-6 Unicasting compared to multicasting
  30. 30. Subnet Mask <ul><li>Subnet mask: A designated portion of an IP address that is used to indicate the class of addressing on a network and to divide a network into subnetworks as a way to control traffic and enforce security </li></ul>
  31. 31. Configuring the IP Address and Subnet Mask in Windows 2000 Figure 3-7 IP address and subnet mask setup
  32. 32. Static and Dynamic Addressing <ul><li>Dynamic addressing: Involves automatically assigning an IP address to a network host </li></ul><ul><li>Static addressing: Involves manually assigning an IP address to a network host </li></ul>
  33. 33. TCP/IP Advantages <ul><li>Well-suited for medium and large networks </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for routing; has high degree of reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Used worldwide for directly connecting to the Internet and by Web servers </li></ul><ul><li>Enables lower TCO on Microsoft networks </li></ul>
  34. 34. TCP/IP Advantages <ul><li>Compatible with standard tools for analyzing network performance </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel ability to use DHCP and WINS through a Windows 2000 server </li></ul><ul><li>Ability for diverse networks and operating systems to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with Microsoft Windows Sockets </li></ul>
  35. 35. TCP/IP Disadvantages <ul><li>More difficult to set up and maintain than other protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat slower than IPX/SPX and NetBEUI on networks with light to medium traffic </li></ul>
  36. 36. Routing via TCP/IP Figure 3-8 Router forwarding packets to a designated network
  37. 37. Planning Tip <ul><li>For medium and large sized networks, plan to use TCP/IP because it enables you to manage and secure network traffic through creating subnets </li></ul>
  38. 38. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite
  39. 39. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite (continued)
  40. 40. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite (continued)
  41. 41. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite (continued)
  42. 42. Protocols and Applications in the TCP/IP Suite (continued)
  43. 43. IPX/SPX <ul><li>IPX: A protocol developed by Novell for use with its NetWare server operating system (particularly for NetWare versions before version 5) </li></ul><ul><li>SPX: A Novell connection-oriented protocol used for network transport when there is a particular need for data reliability </li></ul>
  44. 44. NWLink <ul><li>A network protocol that simulates the IPX/SPX protocol for Microsoft Windows 95, 98, NT, and 2000 communications with Novell NetWare file servers and compatible devices </li></ul>
  45. 45. Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) Components <ul><li>Client Service for NetWare </li></ul><ul><li>NWLink IPX/SPX </li></ul><ul><li>NWLink NetBIOS </li></ul>
  46. 46. CSNW Installed in Windows 2000 Figure 3-9 Windows 2000 with CSNW components installed
  47. 47. Configuring NWLink <ul><li>Configure three elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal network number </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. When to Configure the Internal Network Number <ul><li>When the NetWare server that is accessed uses two or more frame types </li></ul><ul><li>When the Windows 2000 host has two or more NICs and NWLink is bound to more than one of the NICs </li></ul><ul><li>When an application uses NetWare’s Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) </li></ul>
  49. 49. When to Use NWLink <ul><li>To enable a computer running Windows 2000 to access a NetWare server (pre-version 5) </li></ul><ul><li>To set up Windows 2000 as a gateway to a NetWare server </li></ul><ul><li>To enable NetWare clients to access a Windows 2000 server </li></ul>
  50. 50. Planning Tip <ul><li>If you upgrade NetWare servers to version 5.x or higher, convert from IPX/SPX to TCP/IP for better network communication options and better compatibility with Windows 2000 servers </li></ul>
  51. 51. NetBIOS <ul><li>A combination software interface and network naming convention </li></ul><ul><li>Available in Windows 2000 through the files Netbt.sys, NetBIOS.sys, and NetBIOS.dll </li></ul>
  52. 52. NetBEUI <ul><li>NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI): A non-routable communications protocol native to early Microsoft network communications </li></ul>
  53. 53. NetBEUI and NetBIOS Communication Figure 3-10 NetBIOS/NetBEUI communication
  54. 54. Planning Tip <ul><li>When you upgrade from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000 Server, plan to retire NetBEUI implementations (if possible) and convert upgraded servers and clients to TCP/IP for more functionality </li></ul>
  55. 55. When to Use NetBEUI <ul><li>For temporary backward compatibility when converting from Windows NT Server to Windows 2000 Server </li></ul><ul><li>For small networks that do not have Internet access, that do not use the Active Directory, that do not use routing, and that require only a basic installation </li></ul><ul><li>For backward compatibility with particular applications </li></ul>
  56. 56. DLC <ul><li>Data Link Control (DLC) protocol: Enables communication with older IBM mainframes and minicomputers, and with some older HP print server cards </li></ul>
  57. 57. When to Use DLC <ul><li>To connect to IBM and other computers that use Systems Network Architecture (SNA) communications </li></ul><ul><li>To connect to older peripheral devices, such as printers that use DLC </li></ul>
  58. 58. AppleTalk <ul><li>AppleTalk: A peer-to-peer protocol used in network communication between Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server Services for Macintosh include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Server for Macintosh (MacFile) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print Server for Macintosh (MacPrint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk protocol </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. When to Use AppleTalk <ul><li>Use AppleTalk to enable Macintosh clients to connect to Windows 2000 Server </li></ul>
  60. 60. Binding Order <ul><li>Windows NT and Windows 2000 enable you to set a binding order which establishes the protocol that will be tried first in a network communication (or a communication with a network printer) </li></ul>
  61. 61. Troubleshooting Tip <ul><li>If network performance is slow and your network uses a combination of protocols, tune the binding order on Windows NT and Windows 2000 clients which can be an inexpensive way to immediately relieve network congestion </li></ul>
  62. 62. Network Planning Considerations <ul><li>Size and purpose of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Potential growth </li></ul><ul><li>Proportion of mission-critical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the network to the mission of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Security needs </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and intranet requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnectivity requirements </li></ul>
  63. 63. Planning Tip <ul><li>Begin network planning by understanding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential growth </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Considerations in Selecting the Right Protocol(s) <ul><li>Routing needs </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the network in terms of connections </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Windows 2000 servers </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of mainframes and other computers that use SNA </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of NetWare servers </li></ul><ul><li>Access to the Internet or intranets </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of mission-critical and multimedia applications </li></ul>
  65. 65. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Protocols are the life blood of a network, thus plan their use carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>The Microsoft NDIS driver enables using one or more protocols such as TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, DLC, and AppleTalk. </li></ul><ul><li>For modern networking TCP/IP implementations are preferred. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Plan to use only the protocols necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Tune network binding order in Windows NT and Windows 2000 operating systems to enhance network performance. </li></ul>