Final Presentation: PowerPoint File


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  • This slide show the four regions we used to score the tail damage.
  • This slide shows that tadpoles of both species had a significant amount of tail damage.
  • Final Presentation: PowerPoint File

    1. 1. Color Pattern and Behavior: How Tadpoles Escape Predation Dr. Janalee Caldwell-Research Scientist Rhonda Clements-Noble Lisa Henderson-Little Axe Cathy Kill-Little Axe Adrian Pearson-Norman Wallisa Stearman-Putnam City Infusing Inquiry into Elementary School Science Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
    2. 2. Key Questions <ul><li>What are major predators of tadpoles? </li></ul><ul><li>Does tail color pattern aid in escaping predation? </li></ul><ul><li>What behaviors do tadpoles exhibit in escaping predation? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Predators of Tadpoles <ul><li>Dragonfly Larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Belostomatid (Toe Biter) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Insect Larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul>
    4. 4. Dragonfly Larvae and Belostomatid
    5. 5. Tail Damage Data Collection <ul><li>Do tadpoles have significant damage on the tails? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined preserved tadpoles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scored tail damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured body and total length </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Gathering Tail Damage Evidence
    7. 7. We studied two types of tadpoles to gather our data <ul><li>Gray Treefrog </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowmouth Toad </li></ul>
    8. 8. Sample Characteristics (mm) <ul><li>Gray Treefrog Tadpoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean ± SD = 30.5 ± 6.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range = 12.1 – 36.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N = 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowmouth Toad Tadpoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean ± SD = 29.2 ± 6.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range = 11.2 – 36.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N = 26 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Characteristics of the Gray Treefrog Tadpole <ul><li>Mottled Tail </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Size = 30.4 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the water column </li></ul>
    10. 10. Characteristics of the Narrowmouth Toad <ul><li>Concentration of Pigment in Tip of Tail </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Size = 29.2 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Dwellers </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hypothesis <ul><li>Tadpoles with the pigmented tip would have more damage on the tail tip than the species with out pigment concentrated at the tip </li></ul><ul><li>To test this hypothesis, we examined tail damage in various regions of the tails of two species of tadpoles </li></ul>
    12. 12. Tip Distal Mid Proximal
    13. 14. Narrowmouth Toad tail damage (left) Gray Treefrog tail damage (right)
    14. 16. Use of Behavior to Escape Predation <ul><li>We hypothesized that tadpoles might use a refuge more often in the presence of predators than in the absence of predators </li></ul><ul><li>We collected two species of tadpoles and introduced them to wading pools with an available refuge, both with and without predators </li></ul>
    15. 17. Research Process
    16. 20. American Toad Tadpoles in Pond Setting
    17. 22. <ul><li>Problems with American Toad Experiment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many tadpoles in experiment died both with and without predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible explanations include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>Tadpoles occur in habitats with many types of predators </li></ul><ul><li>Tail color pattern may help tadpoles escape predation </li></ul><ul><li>Use of temporary ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Gray Treefrogs select habitat based on predator location </li></ul>
    19. 24. Special Thanks To: <ul><li>Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Wendy Gram </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Melton </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff Patterson </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Edmund Marek </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jon Pederson </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Janalee Caldwell </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ingo Schlupp, OU Aquatic Facility </li></ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation </li></ul>
    20. 25. The End