Educational Technology Yesterday, Today, and


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Educational Technology Yesterday, Today, and

  1. 1. Educational Technology Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
  2. 2. Technology and Its Changing Impact on Learning and Teaching James D. Lehman, Educational Technology
  3. 3. Educational Technology <ul><li>PAST </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>FUTURE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Educational Technology Past Today’s Lesson History
  5. 5. Roots <ul><li>Educational technology as we know it today has roots in at least three once-separate disciplines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic instructional design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of this presentation centers on the latter, although they are intertwined. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Instructional Design Roots <ul><li>Instructional design was founded on the pioneering work of individuals such as Edward L. Thorndike (at right). </li></ul><ul><li>It has been influenced by three major theoretical perspectives over the last century: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Instructional Design Roots <ul><li>The growing understanding of the process of human learning in the 20 th century supported the growing notion that instruction can be systematically designed to produce learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The training effort during World War II, and subsequent developments, helped to link instructional design with mediated and mechanical delivery systems. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Educational Media Roots <ul><li>Educational media came to prominence in the early part of the 20 th century with an emphasis on real objects and visuals, then films, and later radio, TV, and computers. </li></ul><ul><li>WWII training relied heavily mediated instructional materials, setting a model for later education. </li></ul><ul><li>However, until recently, all media were separately developed and managed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Educational Computing Roots <ul><li>Most developments in computing occurred in about the last half of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>However, precedents were set earlier. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abacus, circa 3000 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pascal’s adding machine, 1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacquard’s loom, 1801 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B a b b a g e ’ s a na l ytic a l e n gin e , 1 8 3 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollerith’s electric tabulator, 1889 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Educational Computing Roots <ul><li>Early computers developed around the middle of the 20 th century included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABC Computer, developed by Atanasoff and Berry at Iowa State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM/Harvard Mark I and II developed by Aiken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENIAC, developed by Mauchly and Eckert at Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDVAC, developed by von Neumann also at Penn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colossus, a British computer secretly built during WWII to break German codes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. ENIAC
  12. 12. Computing - past <ul><li>First generation computers used vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd generation used transistors. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 rd generation relied on integrated circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s 4 th generation models use very large-scale integrated circuitry. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Computing - past <ul><li>In 1971, Ted Hoff at Intel Corporation developed the first microprocessor, a computer on a single silicon chip. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972, handheld calculators begin to become popular, Pong - the first video game -was invented, and Wang developed a word processing system. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973, Xerox PARC researchers invented the mouse and graphical user interface. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Computing - past <ul><li>In 1975, a company called MITS began marketing the Altair personal computer kit. IBM introduced the laser printer. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1977, led by upstart Apple Computer, the first ready-to-run personal computers were released. Microsoft was founded. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979, the first spreadsheet, Visicalc, was released and became the first “killer app” for personal computers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Computing - past <ul><li>In 1981, IBM made the movement “legitimate” by releasing the first IBM-PC. Microsoft was chosen to provide the operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1982, the computer was chosen Time Magazine “Man of the Year.” TCP/IP became the standard for ARPANET. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983, Apple released the Lisa. Though a commercial flop, it led to the subsequent Macintosh. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Computing - past <ul><li>In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh computer with the now famous Orwellian ad during the Super Bowl. The CD-ROM was developed by Sony and Philips. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN developed the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1992, Windows 3.1 was released. It established Windows as the dominant OS. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Computing - past <ul><li>In 1993, Apple introduced the Newton, the first popular PDA. Mosaic, the first popular web browser, was released by NCSA. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Netscape’s first browser was released. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, Windows 95 was released, completing Microsoft’s transition to a Mac-like GUI. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, the number of web host passed 10,000,000 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hardware - past <ul><li>In the beginning, personal computers were viewed as a new and unique medium. Other media/industries -- video, audio, graphic arts, publishing -- existed in separate spheres and didn’t work well with PCs. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, personal computers were viewed as stand-alone devices. Little thought was given to networking. When it began, it was awkward and very slow. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Software - past <ul><li>Early PCs had little prepared software; most came with the BASIC programming language built in. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems were text-based and difficult to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine capabilities were limited. Media were limited to basic text, rudimentary graphics, and simple sound effects. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Software - past <ul><li>Over time, useful applications such as electronic spreadsheets, word processors, and database programs were developed and slowly refined. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational software was developed; at first quality was a big concern, but it improved over time. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Education - past <ul><li>The first experiments in the use of computers for education date back to the late 1950s and early 1960s, well before PCs. These early efforts focused on the computer as a “teaching machine” useful for drill and practice and content tutorials. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Suppes from Stanford is sometimes credited with being the “father of CAI” for his early work in this field. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Education - past <ul><li>The largest early effort was PLATO, developed by Donald Bitzer and associates at the University of Illinois beginning in the early 1960s. Authoring tools and many packages developed for PLATO were ultimately ported to personal computers. </li></ul><ul><li>TICCIT, guided by Victor Bunderson at BYU, was another large-scale early project. It was notable for approaching CAI from an instructional design perspective. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Education - past <ul><li>When PCs first emerged, emphasis was placed on teaching children to program. This was largely due to the lack of prepared software and availability of programming languages. </li></ul><ul><li>It spawned a “computer literacy” movement, a term coined by Arthur Luehrmann, which focused mainly on knowledge of programming. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Education - past <ul><li>As educational programs began to appear, much emphasis shifted to computer assisted instruction and many of the ideas first developed by PLATO and TICCIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Another school of thought emphasized student development of understanding using education friendly computer languages such as Logo, developed by Seymour Papert and associates at MIT. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Education - past <ul><li>In more recent years, the emphasis in educational computing has shifted to subject matter integration, using the computer as a tool to support teaching and learning in specific disciplines. Teaching about technology takes a back seat to teaching and learning with technology. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Educational Technology - Past Instructional Design Educational Media Educational Computing
  27. 27. Educational Technology Present Today’s Lesson Trends
  28. 28. Educational Technology Today <ul><li>Today, instructional design, educational media, and educational computing are robust fields of endeavor. </li></ul><ul><li>They influence formal and informal education, the training sector, and segments of society. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Educational Technology Today <ul><li>What are some educational technology trends that we can see today? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Discipline Convergence Instructional Design Educational Media Educational Computing
  31. 31. Discipline Convergence Instructional Design Educational Media Educational Computing
  32. 32. Educational Technology Discipline Convergence
  33. 33. ID Theory Base <ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist perspective </li></ul>
  34. 34. ID Theory Base <ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist perspective </li></ul>
  35. 35. ID Theory Base <ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist perspective </li></ul>or an eclectic view
  36. 36. ID Emphasis <ul><li>Pre-designed education and training materials </li></ul><ul><li>Just-in-time education and training, granularity, learning objects, collaborative construction of materials </li></ul>
  37. 37. Media Convergence
  38. 38. Media Convergence
  39. 39. Media Convergence
  40. 40. Media Convergence
  41. 41. Computing Developments <ul><li>Today’s PCs are a significant advance over the first models. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore’s Law, originally postulated in 1965, predicted that the number of transistors on a integrated circuit will double every 18 months. Though Moore forecast it would hold true through 1975, it is still holding true today. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Computer Size
  43. 43. Networking <ul><li>In 1969, ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, began with 4 hosts </li></ul><ul><li>By 1987, there were 10,000 hosts </li></ul><ul><li>By 1992, there were 1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>By 1996, there were 10,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Today, there are 100,000,000+ </li></ul>
  44. 44. Software - present <ul><li>Software has improved dramatically since the introduction of the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>Text-based operating systems have given way to the GUI, that was originally invented at Xerox PARC, popularized by the Apple Macintosh, and is now embodied in Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recognition is here but not yet widespread. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Software - present <ul><li>A wide array of powerful productivity tools for the PC (e.g., word processors, databases, spreadsheets, desktop publishing software) is now available. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational software has improved greatly in quality, and a large number of titles are available. </li></ul><ul><li>The Web has made huge quantities of information as well as software readily available. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Computers in Schools <ul><li>There are about 11 million computers in K-12 schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The student-to-computer ratio in schools went from about 40:1 in 1985 to about 4:1 in 2001. The ratio of students to multimedia computers is about 7:1. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Macintosh is the largest single brand in schools – 1/3 of all machines, but all Wintel platform computers combined make up 2/3. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Computers in Schools <ul><li>About 97% of schools are connected to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>About 90% of teachers report using the Internet as a teaching resource, and 74% of students use it at least an hour a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools with higher percentages of minority students tend to lag behind other schools in access to and use of technology such as computers and the Internet. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Computers in Schools <ul><li>Nationally, K-12 technology spending for the 2000-2001 school year was about $5.5 billion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>67% hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% staff development </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Horizon Technologies
  50. 50. Laptop Computers <ul><li>Laptop computers offer more flexibility that desktops; 28% of schools are now using laptops. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Handheld Computing <ul><li>Handheld devices, like Palm Pilots and Pocket PCs, are proliferating and growing in sophistication. About 22% of schools now use them. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Wireless Connectivity <ul><li>IEEE 802.11b – wireless LANs support fairly wide range (up to hundreds of feet) and reasonably fast connections (11 Mbs). About 10% of schools use it now. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth – emerging wireless standard for connectivity to a variety of devices, such as printers, with a more limited range and slower data transfer rates </li></ul>
  53. 53. Broadband <ul><li>DSL and cable modems, for example, provide much faster connectivity to network resources than standard 56K telephone modems. About 75% of schools report having fast Internet connections. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Photonic-Crystal Fiber <ul><li>Photonic-crystal fiber is a new type of fiber that can transmit light much more efficiently than today’s glass fiber optic cable. It promises to allow data transfer rates in the trillions of bits per second. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Web Technologies <ul><li>DHTML </li></ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><li>C# (part of Microsoft’s .NET) </li></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul>
  56. 56. Speech Recognition <ul><li>Current generation speech recognition programs, Dragon’s NaturallySpeaking and IBM’s ViaVoice, are pretty good when trained by an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T, among others, is developing generic speech recognition technologies that may function without begin trained to one person’s voice. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Virtual Reality <ul><li>Virtual reality systems give the user the illusion of operating within a three-dimensional environment that responds to the user’s motion within it. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Distributed Intelligence <ul><li>An increasing range of appliances and objects will be equipped with a computer processor and so be capable of “smart” interaction with people. Some people refer to this as ubiquitous computing. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Electronic Ink / Paper / Books <ul><li>eBooks, portable devices that can hold downloaded books, are already available. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic ink or paper is a developing technology in which microcapsules, embedded within a thin film that can be mounted in tablet or possibly even something like normal paper, can display print in response to electrical signals. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Holographic Storage <ul><li>Holographic storage is an experimental technology under development by IBM. Scientists predict the capability for a 125 Gb CD size storage unit by 2003. In another 10 years, they predict terabyte storage, with 1 Gb per second transfer rates. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotechnology, involving manipulation at the molecular level, is among the most highly touted of coming technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip development (Intel predicts a 1-billion transistor, 20 GHz chip by 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniature machines, such as robots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials assembly </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Educational Technology The Future Distributed Learning
  63. 63. Predicting the Future <ul><li>Predicting the future can be a notoriously tricky proposition. A few examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Everything that can be invented has been invented.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Duell, U.S. Office of Patents, 1899 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Watson, Chairman, IBM, 1943 </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Time magazine, July 15, 1996
  64. 64. Predicting the Future <ul><li>Given the trends and horizon technologies discussed, how do you think these will affect education and training in the future? </li></ul>
  65. 65. Education - future
  66. 66. Education - future <ul><li>Some experts argue that with the emergence of multimedia software and the delivery vehicle of the Internet, schooling as we know it has become obsolete. They suggest we should do away with schools as they now exist. </li></ul><ul><li>This is one extreme position. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Education - future <ul><li>Others argue that computer technology is just a flash in the pan, the latest in a long line of educational technology innovations that have promised more than they delivered. They suggest we should forget about technology and get back to schooling as usual. </li></ul><ul><li>This is another extreme position. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Education - future <ul><li>It is possible to envision a more moderate future that lies between these extremes. </li></ul>F U T U R E
  69. 69. Education - future <ul><li>Computers and, increasingly, smaller computing devices will become commonplace tools for teachers and students. They will connect wirelessly and become an integral part of the teaching and learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest emphasis will be given to using technology tools for real work on authentic tasks. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Education - future <ul><li>In a few years, increased processing and storage capacity along with software advances are likely to make voice interfacing with computing devices commonplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Full multimedia capability, including routine access to and storage of video, will also be possible. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Education - future <ul><li>With access to huge stores of multimedia information, education will focus less on information delivery and more on finding, evaluating, and using information. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher’s role will increasingly shift from the “sage on the stage” to the “guide on the side.” </li></ul>
  72. 72. Education - future <ul><li>With improving technology and increasing networking, education will become available anytime and anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education, of necessity, will work to reach growing non-traditional audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Life-long learning will become the norm, and technology will be one tool that helps educators reach those who need continuing education. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Education - future <ul><li>Given the prevalence of the Internet as a resource and delivery system, ID is likely to focus increasingly on helping individuals access available resources and training, just-in-time, and using granular modules that can be flexibly arranged to meet differing needs. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Education - future <ul><li>Distributed or distance education will continue to grow. It is likely to be based on a number of delivery vehicles, especially the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>As distance education expands, smaller institutions and weaker departments in larger schools may be forced out of business as a cost-conscious public looks for greater economy. Outside organizations may become prominent content providers. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Education - future <ul><li>Computers and allied technologies are unlikely ever to replace traditional face-to-face teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>But, technology probably will change the face of the teaching and learning landscape that we know today. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Education - future <ul><li>It is incumbent upon educators today to begin preparing for the changing education paradigms of tomorrow. </li></ul>
  77. 77. The End