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  1. 1. SOFTWARE <ul><li>DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM: </li></ul><ul><li>STORED: </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM SOFTWARE: MANAGES COMPUTER RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE: SPECIFIC BUSINESS APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  2. 2. SOFTWARE HARDWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: INTERPRETERS COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE
  3. 3. MULTIPROGRAMMING PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY
  4. 4. MULTITASKING <ul><li>ON A </li></ul><ul><li>SUCH AS A </li></ul><ul><li>MICROCOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  5. 5. VIRTUAL STORAGE <ul><li>METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIXED LENGTH PORTIONS (PAGES) OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PORTIONS RESIDE IN PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PORTIONS SWAPPED OUT WHEN DONE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  6. 6. TIME SHARING <ul><li>MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU: </li></ul><ul><li>TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES </li></ul><ul><li>EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  7. 7. MULTIPROCESSING <ul><li>TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  8. 8. LANGUAGE TRANSLATION <ul><li>SOURCE CODE: </li></ul><ul><li>COMPILER/INTERPRETER: </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT CODE: </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. UTILITY PROGRAMS <ul><li>Built-in functions </li></ul>
  10. 10. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) <ul><li>OPERATING SYSTEM USES: </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHIC ICONS (Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes) </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><li>TO ISSUE COMMANDS </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  11. 11. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT Me & 2000 Windows CE OS/2
  12. 12. OPERATING SYSTEM MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia Unix For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking. Portable to various Computer Platforms DOS For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K Linux Free, reliable alternative to Unix, Windows. Runs on many Platforms FEATURES
  13. 13. GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES <ul><li>1st. Since 1940s. </li></ul><ul><li>2nd. Since early ’50s. </li></ul><ul><li>3rd. Since mid ‘50s. </li></ul><ul><li>4th. Since late ‘70s. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  14. 14. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  15. 15. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science </li></ul><ul><li>PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output </li></ul><ul><li>ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business </li></ul><ul><li>C. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform. C++ is object oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  16. 16. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LANGUAGES <ul><li>LISP (LISt Processor). Began late ‘50s at MIT. Preferred in US. Require Specially Configured Machines </li></ul><ul><li>PROLOG. Began in early ‘70s. Preferred outside US. Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><li>Create Meaningful Lists of Symbols (Operations; Variables; Data) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  17. 17. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>CAN BE EMPLOYED BY END USERS </li></ul><ul><li>NONPROCEDURAL </li></ul><ul><li>CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>SIX CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  18. 18. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>1. QUERY LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  19. 19. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>2. REPORT GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>3. GRAPHICS LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  20. 20. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>4. APPLICATION GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  21. 21. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (APL ,Nomad2): </li></ul>
  22. 22. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>6. SOFTWARE PACKAGE: COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SET OF PROGRAMS... </li></ul><ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL, WEB BROWSERS, GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES NOW COMBINE THESE TO SIMPLIFY LEARNING AND USE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  23. 23. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>COMBINES DATA & PROCEDURES INTO A SINGLE OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM SENDS MESSAGE TO OBJECT TO PERFORM EMBEDDED PROCEDURE </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT’S DATA ENCAPSULATED FROM REST OF SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CREATES REUSABLE CODE </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES TIME AND COST OF WRITING SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>VISUAL PROGRAMMING: SELECT AND ARRANGE OBJECTS RATHER THAN WRITE CODE * </li></ul>
  24. 24. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>JAVA: Sun Microsystems OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>APPLET: TINY PROGRAM TO EXECUTE SMALL FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>APPLETS DOWNLOADED FROM NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>RUN ON ANY COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT SAVED ON NETWORK, NOT ON PC </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY NETWORK VERSION OF SOFTWARE NEEDS UPGRADE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  25. 25. HTML <ul><li>Tags </li></ul><ul><li>HTML authoring capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic HTML </li></ul><ul><li>XML- for document management and moving of data form one system to another </li></ul>
  26. 26. Software Trends <ul><li>Natural language </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recognition </li></ul><ul><li>GUI </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated software </li></ul><ul><li>Middleware </li></ul>
  27. 27. Software Selection Criteria <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul>
  28. 28. Case Study <ul><li>Sunburst Hotels </li></ul>

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