Data: Storage/Malware


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Data: Storage/Malware

  1. 1. Malware and Storage Images from Shelly Cashman’s Discovering Computer 2004
  2. 2. Phishing – What is it? <ul><li>“ During our regular verification of accounts, we couldn’t verify your information. Please click here to update and verify your information.” </li></ul><ul><li>Internet fraudsters who send spam or pop-up messages to lure personal information (credit card numbers, bank account information, Social Security number, passwords, or other sensitive information) from unsuspecting victims. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phishing <ul><li>Web sites frequently spoofed by phishers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PayPal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eBay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Online </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social Engineering <ul><li>Manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information; trickery or deception. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases, attacker never comes face-to-face with the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the area where most users are VULNERABLE! </li></ul><ul><li>Advice: Be Skeptical!!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Avoid Getting Hooked! FTC Recommends… <ul><li>If you get an e-mail requesting personal info – do not reply ! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t send personal information via e-mail / don’t click on any links in message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have an account, open NEW browser window and type actual address yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Load anti-malware software and firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Review credit card and bank statements ASAP </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious about opening attachments from e-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Forward spam that is phishing for information to [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Post Article (2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other Tips PC Magazine February ‘08 <ul><li>Avoid spiders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post your e-mail online as “name at domain dot com” instead of [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never reply to spam </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Spim (Spam in IM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use obscure username (harder to figure out who you are) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use secondary e-mail address for online stuff </li></ul>
  7. 7. Did You Know? 1 in 6 … <ul><li>Number of computers with active malware </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Prevx Automated Malware Research: PC Magazine Feb 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Your PC is under constant attack </li></ul><ul><li>No single software product can detect or eradicate all threats to your computer </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. What are Viruses? <ul><li>Virus – unwanted program designed to damage a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Passed in a few ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inserts itself into another program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a Web page program (example: scripts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro – instructions for word processing or spreadsheet (data file) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed to deliver payload to other users; usually attaches itself to another program </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Few Virus Types <ul><li>Worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Replicating computer program -- sends to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Conflickr, Klez, Sircam, Melissa, MyDoom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear to be legitimate programs, but hidden inside is a malicious program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macro </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini-programs – found in MS Word and Excel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Ethan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is Adware? <ul><li>Software that generates ads as you surf the Web (pop-ups) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Might profile surfing habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read End User License Agreement of software (especially free stuff) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What is Spyware? <ul><li>Application that tracks your online and/or offline PC activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of transmitting those findings for third parties many times without your knowledge… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyware can be installed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hacker, through a pop-up window, via an Instant Messenger service, or delivered through e-mail. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File-sharing sites (such as Kazaa and BitTorrent Ultra) are well-known paths for spyware infections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Malware Terms <ul><li>Back Door </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing computer without your knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small program designed to mimic person’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keylogger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden program recording everything a person types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RootKit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program(s) which allows unauthorized users to maintain access as systems administrators while concealing activities from legitimate system administrator. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Malware Terms (Cont’d) <ul><li>Phishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterfeit e-mail messages or Web pages to trick people into providing user names, passwords, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyloggers, etc. transmit data to malware’s creator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden software that collects private information </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Malware Terms (cont’d) <ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malware that pretends to be something else (ex. another program) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malware that spreads itself by infecting other programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone malware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zombie </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hijacked computer </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Anti-Malware <ul><ul><li>PC World (October 2009) Top Free Antivirus Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avira AntiVir Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alwil Avast AntiVirus Home Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVG Free 8.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Security Essentials (beta version) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on… Panda Cloud Antivirus (beta version) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Contenders… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MalwareBytes Anti-Malware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SuperAntiSpyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows Defender (free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-Aware Pro (includes Antivirus) (free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ThreatFire 3.5 (AntiVirus/AntiSpyware) (free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spybot Search & Destroy (free) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Security Suites
  17. 17. Macintosh <ul><li>The big issue now is that Macintosh users don’t want to spread virus to Windows users (especially in a corporate environment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norton Anti-Virus 11 for Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intego VirusBarrier X5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McAfee VirusScan for Mac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ClamXav (free) (Mac and Windows malware) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC Tools iAntiVirus (free version) (Only Mac malware) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Firewall <ul><li>Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Inspects network traffic and permits or denies passage depending on set of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Computer has ‘Ports’ which are used to receive messages from the Web </li></ul><ul><li>PCs are made to look invisible to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Bidirectional (Vista and Mac OS) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Security Solutions!! <ul><li>Make sure Operating System is up-to-date (automatic updates) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install a ‘Security Suite’ or a good anti-malware program(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan memory, hard drives, downloaded files, emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure virus/spyware signatures up-to-date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan downloaded files and use ‘real-time’ protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch macros (Word, Excel, etc.) and scripts in Web Browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a bidirectional firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP (inbound only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Vista and Mac OS X (bidirectional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Suites (alternative) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use additional anti-spyware programs (free) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan downloaded files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try Firefox or Opera (browser) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of ‘Social Engineering’ issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid clicking on links in e-mails, avoid spam, watch for phishing scams, watch social networking sites - source of malware (change passwords often) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What is Booting? <ul><ul><ul><li>Cold boot Turning on computer that has been powered off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warm boot Restarting computer that is powered on </li></ul></ul></ul>Warm boot from Windows desktop Warm boot from system unit <ul><ul><li>Process of starting or restarting a computer </li></ul></ul>Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  21. 21. Types of Memory <ul><li>RAM ( temporary ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Access Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage for programs and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Workspace” for the CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM ( permanent ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read Only Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup instructions for computer (“Boot”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or – more specialized applications like games for small computers </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hard Disks Step 1. Circuit board controls movement of head actuator and a small motor. Step 2. Small motor spins platters while computer is running. Step 3. When software requests a disk access, read/write heads determine current or new location of data. Step 4. Head actuator positions read/write head arms over correct location on platters to read or write data. Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  23. 23. Hard Disks clearance read/write head platter hair dust smoke <ul><ul><ul><li>A smoke particle, dust particle, or human hair could render drive unusable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clearance between head and platter is approximately two-millionths of an inch </li></ul></ul></ul>Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  24. 24. Hard Disk Capacity Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 <ul><li>Hard Drive Capacity Explained </li></ul><ul><li>If 1 GB = 1,073,741,824 (2^30), then </li></ul><ul><li>46,102,659,072 bytes / 1,073,741,824 = 42.9 GB </li></ul>
  25. 25. Disks <ul><li>What are tracks and sectors ? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formatting prepares disk for use and marks bad sectors as unusable </li></ul></ul></ul>Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 Track is narrow recording band that forms full circle on disk <ul><ul><li>Sector stores up to 512 bytes of data </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Disk Defragmenter <ul><ul><li>Reorganizes files and unused space on hard disk so programs run faster </li></ul></ul>Can be time-consuming – may want to run overnight Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004 file before defragmenting fragmented disk file after defragmenting
  27. 27. Solid State Hard Drive <ul><li>Data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store data </li></ul><ul><li>Emulates a hard disk drive </li></ul><ul><li>No moving parts, therefore less fragile and quieter </li></ul><ul><li>Solid State Drive - Wikipedia Link </li></ul><ul><li>Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>More $$$ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Hard Drives <ul><li>RPM- Revolutions Per Minute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: 7200 RPM, 5400 RPM, 4200 RPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 RPM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Desktop hard drives usually faster RPM than laptop </li></ul>
  29. 29. Other Storage Devices? <ul><li>CD / DVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD - 650 MB to 1 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD - 4.7 GB to 17 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flash Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash Memory Data Storage Device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64 MB to 64 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect thru USB port </li></ul></ul>Image from Image from
  30. 30. Flash Memory <ul><li>Erasable, programmable ROM </li></ul><ul><li>EEPROM </li></ul><ul><li>Used for storage devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home video game consoles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory Stick, SmartMedia, CompactFlash </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS Chip </li></ul><ul><li> link </li></ul>
  31. 31. Processing… <ul><li>Fastest  Faster  Fast </li></ul>
  32. 32. Applications <ul><li>Today’s applications are LARGE in size </li></ul><ul><li>Not practical to place all of an application in memory while processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So – what is the solution??? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Virtual Memory <ul><li>Virtual Memory – using a portion of free hard drive space as memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Large enough to hold programs and data for all currently running applications </li></ul><ul><li>Use main memory as cache for files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as cache memory, itself, is temporary storage for CPU. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pages – blocks of hard drive space used for programs and data </li></ul>
  34. 34. Virtual Memory <ul><li>Virtual memory contains entire program and data for an application as it runs </li></ul><ul><li>RAM contains sections of the program and data recently used </li></ul><ul><li>Cache contains the most recent materials used in processing by the CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and data moved on an ‘as-needed’ basis </li></ul>
  35. 35. Application Execution Progression… <ul><li>Hard Drive </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Memory on hard drive </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Cache </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>CPU/registers </li></ul>
  36. 36. Virtual Memory Step 1. The operating system transfers the least recently used data and program instructions to disk because memory is needed for other functions. Step 2. The operating system transfers data and program instructions from disk to memory when they are needed. <ul><ul><li>Portion of free hard drive space that is used as RAM </li></ul></ul>Image: © Shelly Cashman Vermaat 2004
  37. 37. How Much Memory?? <ul><li>Depends … </li></ul><ul><li>Enough to run desired programs and plan for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Applications increase in size with each new version that is released! </li></ul><ul><li>I would recommend at least : </li></ul><ul><li>2 GB – 4 GB RAM to start </li></ul><ul><li>- more if you can afford it! </li></ul>
  38. 38. Thrashing <ul><li>Constant movement of materials between disk and main memory </li></ul><ul><li>Why?? Memory too small </li></ul>
  39. 39. Terms – Malware / Storage <ul><li>Adware </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-spyware programs </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-virus program </li></ul><ul><li>Back Door </li></ul><ul><li>Boot (Warm/Cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Bot </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Defragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Keylogger </li></ul><ul><li>Malware </li></ul><ul><li>Page </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Phishing </li></ul><ul><li>Phone Home </li></ul><ul><li>RAM (temporar y) </li></ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Rootkit </li></ul><ul><li>RPM </li></ul><ul><li>Sector </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Security Solutions’ </li></ul><ul><li>Security Suites </li></ul><ul><li>Social Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul><ul><li>Storage devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Drive, Solid State Drive, CD, DVD, Flash, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Track </li></ul><ul><li>Trojan Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Thrashing </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul><ul><li>Zombie </li></ul>