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  1. 1. Homework 3.2 Clients Hub Hub Hub Hub What’s wrong with this picture? Clients Using 100TX
  2. 2. Client and Server Systems <ul><li>Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 95/98 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized Security and system policies </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax, mail, web </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Network Servers <ul><li>Network Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timesharing: splitting time between jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking: processing more that one job at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel Processing: more than one cpu processing jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load Balancing: sending jobs to different servers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multitasking <ul><li>Preemptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS can take over a task without cooperation of the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonpreemptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The task decides if it will give up the processor. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Dedicated vs. Nondedicated <ul><li>Dedicated Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server does server tasks only, it does not execute local programs (Novell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU time is dedicated to server operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non Dedicated Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The user has an interface to the OS on the server and can execute programs locally (Linux, Microsoft) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Software Components <ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File access, Printing, Database access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disks, Printers, Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redirectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles client requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forwards a local request to LPT1: to print server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accesses non local drive letters: F:>, G:>, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Server Software <ul><li>Resource Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File access: remote access to servers disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer access: remote requests to local printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which users can access the disk or printer? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which users can write to the disk? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File locking when 2 users want to write to the same file. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Account for disk usage and printer paper </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Server Administration <ul><li>Managing Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of users (address, email, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time limits (8:00 AM to 5:00 PM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Station limits (specific MAC address) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource load balancing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Novell Operating Systems <ul><li>NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NDS (Novell Directory Services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disk caching and distribution among servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NDPS (Novell Distributed Printing Services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendaring/Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Novell File Services <ul><li>Logon Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trustee Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who can access what file/directory and what can they do with the file </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directory attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The types of operations on a file (read, write, shareable, copyable) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Novell Distributed Printing Services <ul><li>Print spooling and control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access by users to specific printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print load is transferred from client to server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer messages (out of paper, change form) are displayed on the server console. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server handles multivendor printing protocols so client doesn’t need to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients can share their printer through the server </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Microsoft Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Windows NT (includes Win2000, XP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single domain, single server, small workgroup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single master, single server, multiple workgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple master, multiple servers, several workgroups, accounts on multiple servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several domains no master (workgroups trust each other) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Windows NT Services <ul><li>File services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Novell, access, control, rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security, server maintains access lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients or servers can share their local printers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing and Remote access </li></ul><ul><li>Other services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger, Alerter, Browser </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Interoperability <ul><li>Gateway Services for NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles NetWare requests for a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client Services for NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles NetWare requests for a workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File and Print Services for NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol converter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directory Service Manager for NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Windows clients to access NDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Services for Macintosh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Appletalk service on the NT server </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Appletalk Networks <ul><li>Appleshare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple disk and printer sharing (Apple has it’s own file formats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones (Apple’s workgroups/domains) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (each client maintains it’s own lists) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appletalk servers can handle multiple protocols (TCP/IP, Appletalk, Microsoft) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. UNIX (and Linux) Networks <ul><li>Simple Client only to Server transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle multiple protocols and services (Apple, Microsoft SMB, NFS) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be configured as a router/firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Well adapted to remote access </li></ul>
  17. 17. Peer to Peer <ul><li>Simple to set up (almost all OS’s have built in peer to peer support) </li></ul><ul><li>Access lists are kept on each computer, there is no master server. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for small (10 or less) workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat insecure </li></ul>
  18. 18. Interoperability <ul><li>Multivendor environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers can support different OS clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files transferred from different server types go through the client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files transferred from different client OS’s go through the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File formats may be different on each vendors operating system. File type conversion can be done on the server or client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication is almost always different between vendors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Protocols may also be different between vendors </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Server Security <ul><li>Warnings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a server is placed on the network it is now wide open for attack. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Network Operating Systems have bugs and security holes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always upgrade to the latest revisions of the OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the number of services provided by the server to the minimum needed for your particular application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use firewalls as needed in the local area network </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Network Types <ul><li>What Protocol to use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netbeui </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which Name Service? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WINS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LMHOSTS </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Windows NT/95/98/2K Client <ul><li>Pick a name (15 characters NetBios limit) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or use WINS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick a workgroup or domain </li></ul><ul><li>Get networking working </li></ul><ul><li>Add appropriate protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Edit LMHOSTS (for TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><li>Use Network Neighborhood or Find Computer to find the server </li></ul>
  22. 22. Workgroup/Domain <ul><li>Workgroup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Login is on each client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, minimal security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No dedicated server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Login is to the server over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an NT Domain Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High security, centralized usernames/passwords </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Accessing Server Resources <ul><li>Nbtstat to check netbios connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>UNC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>universal naming convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tserverusers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tserverlaser_office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>net use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>net use j: pieobw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>net use lpt1: tserverlaser_office </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Web Services <ul><li>Web Server (IIS on NT based systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Security Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CGI programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Entry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Mail Services <ul><li>SMTP Support </li></ul><ul><li>POP and IMAP mail support </li></ul><ul><li>Novell Groupwise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendaring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendaring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Other Services <ul><li>DATABASE Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft SQL Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed License Service </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting of server and resource use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages printed </li></ul></ul>