Chapter One


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Chapter One

  1. 1. Chapter One The Essence of UNIX and Linux Guide To UNIX Using Linux Third Edition
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Explain operating systems, including PC, mainframe, and network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the UNIX and Linux operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of UNIX/Linux shells </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to select user names and passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to UNIX/Linux using Telnet or SSH </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Use basic UNIX/Linux commands and command-line editing features </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of a system administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Change your password for security </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple commands to view the contents of files </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect output to a file </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating System (OS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most fundamental computer program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables you to store information, process raw data, use application software, compile your own programs, and access attached hardware, such as a printer or keyboard </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding Operating Systems
  6. 6. PC Operating Systems <ul><li>A personal computer (PC) OS conducts all I/O, processing, and storage operations on a stand-alone computer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mainframe Operating Systems <ul><li>A mainframe OS controls a large computer system with multiple processors for I/O, processing, and storage operations for many users </li></ul>
  8. 8. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>A network OS controls the operations of a server computer (host), which accepts requests from user programs running on other computers (clients) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Server-based vs. peer-to-peer networks <ul><li>Server-based network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized processing approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and applications server resident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If server fails, entire network fails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed processing approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and applications workstation resident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each system is both a server and a client </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Introducing the UNIX and Linux Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX/Linux can be used on systems functioning as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated servers or client workstations in a server-based network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server workstations connected to a peer-to-peer network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone workstations not connected to a network </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Introducing the UNIX and Linux Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>UNIX/Linux is a multi-user system </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux is a multitasking system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can execute more than one program at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux is a portable operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in many computing environments </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. A Brief History of UNIX <ul><li>Bell Labs originally developed UNIX in the late 1960s and early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed in source code form </li></ul><ul><li>Universities modified the code to work on different machines </li></ul><ul><li>Two standard versions of UNIX evolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System V (Bell Labs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. UNIX Concepts <ul><li>Shell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interface between user and OS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory and subdirectory organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layered components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers of software surround the computer’s inner core </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Linux and UNIX <ul><li>Linux is UNIX-like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not written from traditional UNIX code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux is original code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes POSIX standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Linux information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers all the complexity of UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux can coexist with other OSs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Introducing UNIX/Linux Shells <ul><li>A shell is a UNIX/Linux program that interprets the commands you enter from the keyboard </li></ul>
  16. 17. Choosing Your Shell <ul><li>Shells interpret commands and act as first-class programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>A default shell is associated with your account when created; Bash is the default shell in Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Some UNIX/Linux shells: Bourne, Korn, C shell, Bash </li></ul><ul><li>Can switch from shell to shell </li></ul>
  17. 18. Choosing User Names and Passwords <ul><li>To use UNIX/Linux, a user must log in by providing a unique user name and password </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux system administrators create accounts by adding user names and passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Users log in to UNIX or Linux systems as long as they have accounts on the workstation or host (server) computer </li></ul>
  18. 19. Connecting to UNIX/Linux Using Telnet or SSH <ul><li>Remotely through Telnet </li></ul><ul><li>Through network client software </li></ul><ul><li>As peer on peer-to-peer network </li></ul><ul><li>On a stand-alone PC </li></ul><ul><li>Through a dumb terminal </li></ul>
  19. 20. Connecting to UNIX Using Telnet <ul><li>Telnet is terminal emulation software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects your PC to a server, or host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PC could be running UNIX, Linux, Windows OS, or Macintosh OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once connected to a UNIX/Linux host, work with UNIX/Linux may begin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses IP addresses or domain names to access remote systems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Secure Shell (SSH) <ul><li>Developed for UNIX/Linux systems to provide authentication security for TCP/IP applications, such as FTP and Telnet </li></ul><ul><li>Can encrypt communications as they go across a network or the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>openSSH includes protocols and software for free distribution on UNIX/Linux systems </li></ul>
  21. 22. Logging In to UNIX/Linux <ul><li>Log in by entering username and password when UNIX/Linux system booted or connected to </li></ul><ul><li>Enter at prompt (command-line mode) or into login box (GUI mode) </li></ul><ul><li>Now commands can be issued at the command prompt </li></ul>
  22. 23. Logging In to UNIX/Linux (continued) <ul><li>With a standalone computer and an X Window desktop such as GNOME, you must open a terminal window to access the command prompt </li></ul>
  23. 24. Using Commands <ul><li>To interact with UNIX/Linux, a command is entered at the command prompt </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux is case-sensitive and most commands are typed in lower case </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-level: perform tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System administration: system management </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Using Commands (continued) <ul><li>The date command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays the system date, which the system administrator maintains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cal command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the system calendar </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Using Commands (continued)
  26. 27. Using Commands (continued)
  27. 28. Using Commands (continued) <ul><li>The who Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To get information about who is logged in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for administrators and users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The clear Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clears the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The whatis command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays a brief description of a command for help purposes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Using Commands (continued) <ul><li>The man program displays the UNIX/Linux online reference manual, called the man pages, for help purposes </li></ul>
  29. 30. Using Commands (continued) <ul><li>Command-line editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain keystrokes perform command-line editing (shell dependent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple command entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one command on one line by separating with a semicolon(;) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Using Commands (continued) <ul><li>Command-line history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use up and down arrow keys to scroll through command history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logging out ends your current process and indicates to UNIX that you are finished </li></ul><ul><li>Logging out is shell dependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourne, Korn, Bash – exit command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C shell – logout command </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Understanding the Role of the UNIX/Linux System Administrator <ul><li>System administrator manages the UNIX/Linux system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds users and deletes old accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the superuser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited permission to alter system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique user name: root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt ends with # (pound) symbol </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Understanding the Role of the UNIX/Linux System Administrator (continued) <ul><li>The System Administrator’s Command Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[root@ hostname root]# </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ordinary User’s Command Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[username@hostname username] $ </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Changing Passwords <ul><li>For security purposes, changing passwords is necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the passwd command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux allows new password if: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The new password differs by at least three characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It has six or more characters, including at least two letters and one number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is different from the user name </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Viewing Files Using the cat, more, less, head, and tail Commands <ul><li>Use cat, more, and less to view an entire file contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cat displays a whole file at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more displays a file one screen at a time, allowing scroll down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less displays a file one screen at a time, allowing scroll down and up </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Viewing Files Using the cat, more, less, head, and tail Commands (continued) <ul><li>Use head and tail to view the first few or last few lines of a file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>head displays the first few lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tail displays the last few lines </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Redirecting Output <ul><li>The greater than sign (>) is called a redirection symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new file or overwrite an existing file by attaching (>) to a command that produces output </li></ul><ul><li>To append to an existing file, use two redirection symbols (>>) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Chapter Summary <ul><li>OS controls all computer resources and provides the base upon which application programs can be used or written </li></ul><ul><li>A server-based network is centralized (handled by the system administrator) </li></ul><ul><li>A peer-to-peer network is decentralized </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux are multi-user, multitasking </li></ul>
  38. 39. Chapter Summary (continued) <ul><li>UNIX/Linux systems can be configured as servers, client workstations, client/server workstations, or stand-alone </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of the layered components that make up an OS originated with UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is a UNIX-like OS for a PC </li></ul><ul><li>You communicate with the OS programs through an interpreter called the shell </li></ul>
  39. 40. Chapter Summary (continued) <ul><li>The system administrator sets up accounts for users that supply a username and password </li></ul><ul><li>You work with UNIX by typing commands that you can learn by referring to the online manual called man pages </li></ul>
  40. 41. Chapter Summary (continued) <ul><li>Most shells provide basic command-line editing capabilities and keep a history of your most recently used commands </li></ul><ul><li>You can view the contents of files with view commands such as cat, less, more, head, and tails </li></ul>