Chapter 8


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  • The correct answer is C. The commonality of the ETC was stressed in the lecture and is important to the function of both organelles Answer A is incorrect because only chloroplasts use chlorophyll. Answer B is incorrect because mitochondria produce CO 2 , while chloroplasts use it. Answer D is incorrect, because mitochondria are used in all cells, but chloroplasts are only in the photosynthesizing cells of plants. This question can be expanded in an in-class discussion of other similarities between these two organelles. Some other similarities include: production of an H+ gradient, production of ATP, use of energy transfer molecules (NADPH or NADH), double membrane structure, and the presence of a chromosome.
  • The correct answer is B. O 2 production is one of the first events in photosynthesis and it is performed by Photosystem II. Photosystem I produces NADPH. Both photosystems add to the H+ gradient. Neither produces ATP directly; ATP synthase does.
  • The correct answer is A. Although some ATP is made directly in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, most of the ATP is made when the electrons from NADH are used by the ETC in Oxidative Phosphorylation. This should be stressed because this is why aerobic respiration is so much more efficient than anaerobic. Answers B & C: As mentioned above, some ATP is made directly, but most is made by ATP synthase. Answer D: Fermentation is not part of aerobic respiration and produces very little energy.
  • Chapter 8

    1. 1. Photosynthesis and Respiration Chapter 8 Lecture Outline
    2. 2. Class Policies <ul><li>Attendance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend both lab and lecture regularly and on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You CANNOT make up labs. If you miss a lab, you should read the lab manual carefully and make sure you understand the lab. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you miss more than two labs, you may be dropped from the course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you miss more than two lectures, you may be dropped from the course (this includes sleeping in class) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic Integrity: the highest standards of academic integrity are expected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students must do their own work on homework assignments, tests, quizzes, and laboratory write-ups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If academic dishonesty occurs, you will receive a zero for that assignment and you may be dropped from the course with an F. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make-up exams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will not allow make-up exams except for in EXTREME circumstances. All make-up exams will consist primarily of essay questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is NOT POSSIBLE to make-up a Lab Practical. You will receive a zero for that grade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell phones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please turn phones off during class. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Grade Points <ul><li>Assignment Points </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture Exams (100 points each) 400 </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Exams (100 points each) 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Reports (5 points each) 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Presentation 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 850 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Respiration Getting energy from food
    5. 5. Energy Carrier Molecules <ul><li>Temporarily store and transfer energy </li></ul><ul><li>ATP stores energy in phosphate bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers this energy with phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorylation </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Hydrogen – proton and electron Proton – positively charged (+) Electron – negatively charged (-)
    7. 7. Other Energy Carriers <ul><li>NADP + and NAD + </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up electrons and become reduced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NADPH and NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Donate these electrons and energy </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mitochondrion: Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>Citric acid cycle & oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain (ETC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrial Matrix </li></ul>ETC
    9. 9. Gaining Energy from Sugar
    10. 10. Catabolic Reactions – breaking down molecules, capturing energy <ul><li>Aerobic metabolism: three steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citric Acid Cycle, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Releases the most energy </li></ul>
    11. 11. Glycolysis <ul><li>Glucose is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP and 3 NADH are made </li></ul>
    12. 12. Glucose is split <ul><li>Count the Carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>6 Carbons in Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>3 Carbons in Pyruvate </li></ul>
    13. 13. Catabolic Reactions - More <ul><li>Anaerobic metabolism: two steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis & Fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases much less energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does NOT use Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Does not use the Citric Acid Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Does not use mitochondria </li></ul>
    14. 14. Fermentation – Does NOT use oxygen <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy production in the absence of O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In yeast and bacteria, CO 2 is formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethyl alcohol is a byproduct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In animals, lactic acid is the byproduct </li></ul>
    15. 15. Anaerobic Respiration Used in making beer, bread
    16. 16. Anaerobic Respiration – more Used in making yogurt, kefir
    17. 17. The Citric Acid Cycle <ul><li>Pyruvate broken down to release CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA added to OAA to form citrate </li></ul><ul><li>3 NADH and 1 ATP are made </li></ul><ul><li>NADH passed to the ETC </li></ul>
    18. 18. Ox/Phos <ul><li>Electrons passed from NADH to ETC </li></ul><ul><li>ETC produces H + gradient </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 accepts electrons and becomes 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>ATP synthase makes ATP from H + gradient </li></ul>
    19. 19. Websites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>gradient/ movie.htm </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    20. 20. Stop Here
    21. 21. Capturing Energy <ul><li>Sun is primary source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flows through life systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consumers </li></ul></ul>Photosynthesis Sugars out O 2 out Respiration CO 2 and H 2 O out
    22. 22. Structure of the Chloroplast <ul><li>Double membrane – intermembrane space </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma </li></ul><ul><li>Thylacoid disks - Thylacoid space </li></ul>Stroma Inner membrane Outer membrane Granum (stack of thylacoids) Chloroplast Thylacoid disk Stroma Thylacoid membrane Thylacoid space Intermembrane space
    23. 23. Light and Dark Reactions <ul><li>Light reactions capture light energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take place in thylacoids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge energy transfer molecules & make O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dark reactions make sugars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in the stoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the energy from transfer molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce glucose </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Light Reactions <ul><li>Chlorophyll antennae capture energy from light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass it to Photosystems I and II (ETCs) </li></ul></ul>Chlorophyll molecules Reaction centers Photosystem II Photosystem I Thylacoid space Thylacoid membrane Antenna complex Stroma
    25. 25. Photosystem II <ul><li>Electrons stripped from H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Energized by light & passed </li></ul><ul><li>H + remains inside thylacoid space </li></ul><ul><li>Energy used to pump H + into thylacoid </li></ul><ul><li>More H + accumulates in thylacoid space </li></ul>
    26. 26. Process Animation 8.1b Photosynthesis: Overview of Reactions  Macintosh  Windows
    27. 27. Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I (look familiar?)
    28. 28. Photosystem I <ul><li>Electrons passed to photosystem I </li></ul><ul><li>Light used to recharge electrons </li></ul><ul><li>This energy used to make NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>Making NADPH decreases H+ outside </li></ul>
    29. 29. Process Animation 8.1c Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions  Macintosh  Windows
    30. 30. ATP Synthase <ul><li>H + gradient represents stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>Used by ATP synthase </li></ul><ul><li>H + released to phosphorylate ADP </li></ul>
    31. 31. Dark Reactions: Carbon Fixation <ul><li>Rubisco catalyzes CO 2 fixation to ribulose </li></ul><ul><li>Begins the carbon fixation cycle </li></ul>Rubisco CARBON FIXATION Glucose Unstable 6C Compound Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
    32. 32. Process Animation 8.1d Photosynthesis: Carbon Fixation Reactions  Macintosh  Windows
    33. 33. <ul><li>Three turns of cycle produce a 3C sugar: </li></ul><ul><li>glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Most is used by mitochondrion: energy </li></ul><ul><li>Two can be combined to give 6C: Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stored or used for structure </li></ul>Dark Reactions: Carbon Fixation
    34. 34. Photosynthesis and Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>An exchange of molecules and energy </li></ul>
    35. 35. Similarities between respiration and photosynthesis <ul><li>Electron Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorylation </li></ul>
    36. 36. Similarities between respiration and photosynthesis <ul><li>ELECTRON TRANSPORT Aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is oxidized ( L ose E lectrons O xidation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are passed to the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a is oxidized by light (photo-oxidized), ( L ose E lectrons O xidation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are passed to the electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Electron transport Chain
    38. 38. Similarities between respiration and photosynthesis <ul><li>CHEMIOSMOSIS the energy released by the electrons as they pass through the electron transport chain is used to create a proton gradient across a membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the intermembrane space in mitochondria, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across the thylacoid membrane into the thylacoid lumen in chloroplasts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are impermeable to hydrogen ions. Diffusion occurs only via specific transport proteins. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Proton gradient – chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation <ul><li>Generates Proton gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Provides energy for ADP—>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Similarities between respiration and photosynthesis <ul><li>PHOSPHORYLATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both the inner mitochondrial membrane and the thylacoid membrane are impermeable to hydrogen ions. Diffusion occurs only via specific transport proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport protein is an enzyme called ATP synthase . As the hydrogen ions (protons) diffuse through ATP synthase, ATP is produced from ADP and inorganic phosphate. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Laboratory Preparation <ul><li>Experiment 8C Paper Chromatography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine various photosynthetic pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe O 2 production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design an Experiment for next class </li></ul>
    43. 43. Visible Spectrum
    44. 44. Concept Quiz <ul><li>A common feature of both chloroplasts and mitochondria is </li></ul><ul><li>The use of chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Production of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Use of an Electron Transport Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Presence in all cells </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Photosystem II differs from photosystem I in that it produces </li></ul><ul><li>NADPH </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>A proton gradient </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul>Concept Quiz
    46. 46. Concept Quiz <ul><li>Most of the ATP produced by aerobic respiration comes from </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>The citric acid cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul>
    47. 47. Process Animation 8.1a Photosynthesis: The Flow of Energy  Macintosh  Windows
    48. 48. Process Animation 8.2a Catabolism: Glycolysis  Macintosh  Windows
    49. 49. Process Animation 8.2b Catabolism: The Citric Acid Cycle  Macintosh  Windows
    50. 51. Process Animation 8.2c Catabolism: Oxidative Phosphorylation  Macintosh  Windows
    51. 52. Process Animation 8.2d Catabolism: Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration  Macintosh  Windows