Chapter 4 Protocol Stacks All Material Taken from  Faster Smarter Network+ Certification  by Melissa Craft
TCP/IP <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly transforming to meet changing ...
TCP/IP
Host-to-host Transport Layer <ul><li>Provides reliable data transport between 2 devices, regardless of type of physical me...
TCP <ul><li>Connection-based protocol which is designed to guarantee data delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Requires added contro...
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) <ul><li>Does not use ACK packets, not reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Much less packet overhead th...
The Internetwork Layer and IP <ul><li>Deals primarily with addressing and routing data </li></ul><ul><li>5 protocols work ...
IP Addressing <ul><li>Identifies network addresses without relying on physical addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Contains both n...
5 Classes of IP Addresses <ul><li>Class A-First Octet is between 0 and 126 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-126.0.0.0 </li></ul></u...
Address Masks <ul><li>An address mask determines which portion of an IP address identifies the network and which portion i...
DNS (Domain Naming System) Names <ul><li>A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) requires host name and DNS domain name </li>...
IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Novell protocol suite </li></ul>...
IPX Addressing <ul><li>Uses “watchdog packets” which are sent to inactive stations. If the packet is not returned within a...
IPX Addresses <ul><li>Utilize network number (4 bytes), MAC address (6 bytes), and socket address (2 bytes) </li></ul><ul>...
IPX Routing <ul><li>Routing Information Protocol (RIP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Vector protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><...
SPX <ul><li>Provides guaranteed delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Very high overhead, speed is lessened </li></ul><ul><li>Sends a...
Netware Shell <ul><li>Provides intermediary service between network & non network aware applications </li></ul><ul><li>Mak...
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) <ul><li>Ensures that all network devices are aware of networking services </li></ul><ul...
Netware Core Protocol (NCP) <ul><li>Used to access file, print, and security services </li></ul><ul><li>NCP allows worksta...
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) <ul><li>Designed to work on small LANs </li></ul><ul><li>Is not routable! </li><...
NetBEUI Interoperability <ul><li>Can be used in routed environment, but it must be tunneled through routable protocol (usu...
AppleTalk <ul><li>Used to connect Apple & Macintosh computers in peer-to-peer configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, ine...
AppleTalk Addresses <ul><li>Dynamically assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Node addresses between 1 and 254 </li></ul><ul><li>Netw...
AppleTalk Suite Protocols <ul><li>AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Echo Protocol (...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 4

616 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
616
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Protocol Stacks All Material Taken from Faster Smarter Network+ Certification by Melissa Craft
  2. 2. TCP/IP <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly transforming to meet changing needs </li></ul><ul><li>Was developed before OSI model </li></ul><ul><li>Contains many protocols with the entire suite </li></ul><ul><li>Has four layers </li></ul>
  3. 3. TCP/IP
  4. 4. Host-to-host Transport Layer <ul><li>Provides reliable data transport between 2 devices, regardless of type of physical media </li></ul><ul><li>Uses ports for identifying which application data is received from so that when it is reassembled is delivered to the correct one </li></ul>
  5. 5. TCP <ul><li>Connection-based protocol which is designed to guarantee data delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Requires added control information (added overhead) </li></ul><ul><li>Relies upon ACK packets. If they aren’t received when expected, TCP retransmits the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes “sliding window” mechanism which enables multiple packets to be sent simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Full-duplex data exchange </li></ul>
  6. 6. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) <ul><li>Does not use ACK packets, not reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Much less packet overhead than TCP </li></ul><ul><li>Does not guarantee data delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Much faster than TCP </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Internetwork Layer and IP <ul><li>Deals primarily with addressing and routing data </li></ul><ul><li>5 protocols work at this level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IP Addressing <ul><li>Identifies network addresses without relying on physical addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Contains both network segment address and device (node) address </li></ul><ul><li>32 bits in lengths (8 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers range from 0 to 255 for each octet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>130.218.134.61 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 5 Classes of IP Addresses <ul><li>Class A-First Octet is between 0 and 126 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-126.0.0.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class B-First Octet is between 128 and 191 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>128-192.0.0.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class C-First Octet is between 192 and 223 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>192-223.0.0.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class D-First Octet is between 224 and 239 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>224-239.0.0.0 (Reserved) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class E-First Octet is between 240 and 255 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>240-255.0.0.0 (reserved) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Address Masks <ul><li>An address mask determines which portion of an IP address identifies the network and which portion identifies the host. Like the IP address, the mask is represented by four octets. </li></ul>255.255.255.0 C 255.255.0.0 B 255.0.0.0 A Address Mask Address Class
  11. 11. DNS (Domain Naming System) Names <ul><li>A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) requires host name and DNS domain name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microsoft.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>edtech.kennesaw.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More “human friendly” naming system </li></ul>
  12. 12. IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Novell protocol suite </li></ul><ul><li>IPX is similar to IP (connectionless) </li></ul><ul><li>SPX is similar to TCP (connection-oriented) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides file, print, and application services </li></ul><ul><li>Also provides directory service (tree) </li></ul>
  13. 13. IPX Addressing <ul><li>Uses “watchdog packets” which are sent to inactive stations. If the packet is not returned within a set period of time, the server will terminate the connection </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the MAC address as the IPX node address portion </li></ul><ul><li>Small overhead, good speed </li></ul>
  14. 14. IPX Addresses <ul><li>Utilize network number (4 bytes), MAC address (6 bytes), and socket address (2 bytes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2AFF:3829: 8FC6:7788:AAAA: 0004 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. IPX Routing <ul><li>Routing Information Protocol (RIP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance Vector protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic routing table management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends messages to neighboring routers only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to falling dominos, can cause broadcast storms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Netware Link Services Protocol (NLSP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link state routing protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses algorithm to enable routers to receive firsthand information about status of other routers on the network </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. SPX <ul><li>Provides guaranteed delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Very high overhead, speed is lessened </li></ul><ul><li>Sends acknowledgment packets in both directions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides error checking, end-to-end flow control, sequencing, and error correction </li></ul>
  17. 17. Netware Shell <ul><li>Provides intermediary service between network & non network aware applications </li></ul><ul><li>Makes decisions regarding accessing the network or not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Printing from Microsoft Word to a network printer </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) <ul><li>Ensures that all network devices are aware of networking services </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts are sent every 60 seconds from server to its neighbors </li></ul>
  19. 19. Netware Core Protocol (NCP) <ul><li>Used to access file, print, and security services </li></ul><ul><li>NCP allows workstations (clients) to perceive remote services in the same way they perceive local services </li></ul>
  20. 20. NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) <ul><li>Designed to work on small LANs </li></ul><ul><li>Is not routable! </li></ul><ul><li>Uses NetBIOS names for identifying network devices (16 bytes in length) </li></ul><ul><li>Devices can have more than one name (aliasing) </li></ul><ul><li>One name is considered permanent-usually taken from MAC address </li></ul>
  21. 21. NetBEUI Interoperability <ul><li>Can be used in routed environment, but it must be tunneled through routable protocol (usually TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><li>NetBIOS names must be resolved to IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly handled through LMHOSTS file (text file located on each computer) </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays the Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is used by Windows servers to map IP addresses to NetBIOS names (more centralized than LMHOSTS files, easier to administrate) </li></ul>
  22. 22. AppleTalk <ul><li>Used to connect Apple & Macintosh computers in peer-to-peer configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, inexpensive, flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Very chatty due to constant broadcasting to ensure connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for large environments </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is much more common </li></ul>
  23. 23. AppleTalk Addresses <ul><li>Dynamically assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Node addresses between 1 and 254 </li></ul><ul><li>Network administrators can assign other network addresses (cable ranges). This requires a router (sometimes called seed routers). </li></ul>
  24. 24. AppleTalk Suite Protocols <ul><li>AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Echo Protocol (AEP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Name Binding Protocol (NBP) </li></ul><ul><li>Printer Access Protocol (PAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) </li></ul>Pages 111-113

×