Chapter 12: Classroom Management


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  • Chapter 12: Classroom Management

    1. 1. Chapter 12 Classroom Management Viewing recommendations for Windows: Use the Arial TrueType font and set your screen area to at least 800 by 600 pixels with Colors set to Hi Color (16 bit). Viewing recommendations for Macintosh: Use the Arial TrueType font and set your monitor resolution to at least 800 by 600 pixels with Color Depth set to thousands of colors.
    2. 2. Overview • Authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative approaches to classroom management • Preventing problems: Techniques of classroom management • Techniques for dealing with behavior problems • Violence in American schools Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–2
    3. 3. Classroom management styles • Authoritarian – Student compliance is main goal – Make heavy use of rewards and punishments • Permissive – Rely heavily on students liking and respecting them • Authoritative – Goal is for students to regulate their own behavior – Set rules but adjust as students show their ability to regulate their own behavior Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–3
    4. 4. Preventing problems: Effective classroom management • Show your students you are “with it” • Learn to cope with overlapping situations • Strive to maintain smoothness and momentum in classroom activities • Keep the whole class involved, even when working with individual students • Introduce variety and be enthusiastic • Be aware of the ripple effect • Be clear and firm when disciplining, and avoid angry outbursts (Kounin, 1970) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–4
    5. 5. Characteristics of well-managed classrooms • Students know what they are expected to do and generally experience the feeling that they are successful doing it • Students are kept busy engaging in teacher-led instructional activities • There is little wasted time, confusion, or disruption • A no-nonsense, work-oriented tone prevails, but at the same time there is a relaxed and pleasant atmosphere (Brophy, 1979; Good, 1982) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–5
    6. 6. Keys to management success • Effective teachers – Demonstrate they have thought about classroom procedures prior to the first day of class – Post and/or announce a short list of basic classroom rules and penalties – Engage in whole-group activities under teacher direction the first few weeks of school – Maintain control by using Kounin’s techniques – Give clear directions, hold students accountable for completing assignments, and give frequent feedback (Evertson, Emmer, Clements, & Worsham, 2000) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–6
    7. 7. Managing middle, junior high, and high school classrooms • For an optimal environment – The arrangement of the seating, materials, and equipment is consistent with the kind of instructional activities the teacher favors – High traffic areas are kept free of congestion – The teacher can easily see all students – Frequently used teaching materials and student supplies are readily available – Students can easily see instructional presentations and displays (Emmer, Evertson, Clements, & Worsham, 2000) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–7
    8. 8. Technology tools for classroom management • Centralized information systems – Computerized files with student information • Integrated learning systems – Individualized instruction for students • New classroom roles for teachers – Managers of complex social interactions – Scaffolding individual student learning Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–8
    9. 9. Techniques for dealing with behavior problems • Influence techniques • I-messages • Problem ownership and active listening • No-lose method Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–9
    10. 10. Influence techniques • Planned ignoring • Signals • Proximity and touch control • Interest boosting (giving student extra attention) • Humor • Helping over hurdles (lack of understanding) • Program restructuring (changing activities) (Redl & Wattenberg, 1959; Walker & Shea, 1999) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–10
    11. 11. Influence techniques • Antiseptic bouncing (time-out) • Physical restraint • Direct appeals (conduct and its consequence) • Criticism and encouragement (private) • Defining limits • Postsituational follow-up (discussion afterward) • Marginal use of interpretation (Redl & Wattenberg, 1959; Walker & Shea, 1999) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–11
    12. 12. I-messages • Talking to the situation, not the personality or the character • Explaining how one feels (e.g. “I get angry when I see bread thrown around.”) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–12
    13. 13. Problem ownership and active listening • Problem ownership – Determining the problem behavior and who it is affecting • Active listening – Listener shows interest; talker is encouraged to express his/her feelings; listener does not actively participate but does respond by acknowledging what the talker has said Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–13
    14. 14. No-lose method • Six-step procedure for solving conflicts – Define the problem – Generate possible solutions – Evaluate the solutions – Decide which solution is best – Determine how to implement the solution – Assess how well the solution solved the problem (Gordon, 1974) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–14
    15. 15. Analyzing reasons for violence • Biological factors – Testosterone (male sex hormone) has been linked to aggression • Gender-related cultural influences – Assertive and aggressive behavior in males is more accepted • Academic skills and performance – Males tend to receive lower grades than females and thus are more likely to experience feelings of frustration at school Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–15
    16. 16. Analyzing reasons for violence • Interpersonal cognitive problem-solving skills – Students who lack the social skills to get along well with others are more likely to have emotional blowups when frustrated • Psychosocial factors – Students who experience difficulty with identity formation may misbehave to release tension • School environment – Large, impersonal schools that do not meet the needs of their students may promote misbehavior in students Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–16
    17. 17. Reducing school violence • Classroom tactics – Increasing student academic achievement • Programs to reduce violence and improve discipline – Just Community – Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) – Conflict resolution programs Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–17
    18. 18. Using technology to keep students in school • Carrollton City School System – Self-paced instructional modules, graphics art laboratory, TV studio, computer-aided design laboratory, increased computer networking, desktop videoconferencing, televisions, video cassette recorders, and overhead projectors • Hueneme School District – Computerized robotics, computer-aided manufacturing, desktop publishing, aeronautics and pneumatic technology • Virtual High Schools Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company 12–18
    19. 19. End of Chapter 12 Classroom Management