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Chap5.ppt

  1. 1. 5.1 5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>DESCRIBE MAJOR TYPES OF SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMINE SYSTEM SOFTWARE & OPERATING SYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN SOFTWARE EVOLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZE MAJOR APPLICATION LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIBE APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY SOFTWARE ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.2
  3. 3. <ul><li>DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTROL COMPUTER OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM: SET OF INSTRUCTIONS TO THE COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>STORED: PROGRAM MUST BE IN PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM SOFTWARE: MANAGES COMPUTER RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE: SPECIFIC BUSINESS APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>SOFTWARE 5.3
  4. 4. SOFTWARE HARDWARE 5.4 SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM: SCHEDULED COMPUTER EVENTS ALLOCATES COMPUTER RESOURCES MONITORS EVENTS LANGUAGE TRANSLATORS: INTERPRETERS COMPILERS UTILITY PROGRAMS: ROUTINE OPERATIONS MANAGE DATA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE; FORTRAN; COBOL; PL / 1; QBASIC; PASCAL; C; C++; “FOURTH GENERATION” LANGUAGES
  5. 5. OPERATING SYSTEM <ul><li>MANAGES & CONTROLS ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOCATION & ASSIGNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING </li></ul><ul><li>MONITORING </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM RESIDENCE DEVICE: SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE STORING OPERATING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.5
  6. 6. MULTIPROGRAMMING PROGRAM 1 TRADITIONAL SINGLE-PROGRAM SYSTEM 5.6 OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY OPERATING SYSTEM UNUSED MEMORY PROGRAM 1 PROGRAM 2 PROGRAM 3 MULTIPROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT
  7. 7. MULTITASKING <ul><li>MULTIPROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>ON A </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE-USER SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>SUCH AS A </li></ul><ul><li>MICROCOMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.5
  8. 8. VIRTUAL STORAGE <ul><li>METHOD OF HANDLING SEVERAL PROGRAMS IN PRIMARY STORAGE: </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM DIVIDED INTO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIXED LENGTH PORTIONS (PAGES) OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIABLE LENGTH (SEGMENTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CURRENT PORTIONS RESIDE IN PRIMARY STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>PORTIONS SWAPPED OUT WHEN DONE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.8
  9. 9. TIME SHARING <ul><li>MANY USERS SHARE LARGE CPU: </li></ul><ul><li>TIME IN CPU DIVIDED INTO SLICES (e.g.: 2 MILLISECONDS) </li></ul><ul><li>EACH USER HAS ACCESS TO CPU DURING SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>SINCE CPU IS FAST, CAN DO MUCH DURING TIME SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>USER’S JOB SWAPPED OUT AT END OF SLICE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.9
  10. 10. MULTIPROCESSING <ul><li>TWO OR MORE PARALLEL PROCESSORS IN SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM CAN BE DIVIDED TO BE PROCESSED BY MULTIPLE CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>CAN PROCESS LARGE PROGRAMS MORE RAPIDLY </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.10
  11. 11. <ul><li>SOURCE CODE: HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPILER: TRANSLATES HIGH-LEVEL CODE INTO MACHINE LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT CODE: TRANSLATED INSTRUCTIONS READY FOR COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>LANGUAGE TRANSLATION 5.11
  12. 12. TRANSLATION PROCESS 5.12 SOURCE CODE PROGRAM COMPILER OBJECT CODE LINKAGE EDITOR LOAD MODULE OTHER OBJECT CODE MODULES
  13. 13. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) <ul><li>OPERATING SYSTEM USES: </li></ul><ul><li>GRAPHIC ICONS (Icons, Buttons, Bars, Boxes) </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE </li></ul><ul><li>TO ISSUE COMMANDS </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE SELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.13
  14. 14. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES Windows 98 & 95 Windows NT & 2000 5.14 Windows CE 32-bit operating system; GUI; Multitasking. Networking 32-bit operating system not limited to Intel chips. Multitasking; Multiprocessing; Networking 32-bit. Developed for IBM PS/2. Multitasking; Networking Paired-down for handheld computers, wireless communication devices OS/2
  15. 15. MICROCOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURES UNIX For powerful Microcomputers, Workstations, Minicomputers. Multitasking; Multi-user Processing; Networking. Portable to various Computer Platforms Mac OS For Macintosh computers. Multitasking. Powerful Graphics; Multimedia 5.15 DOS For IBM (PC-DOS) and PC (MS-DOS). Program Memory: 640K
  16. 16. GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES <ul><li>1st. Since 1940s. MACHINE LANGUAGE: binary code </li></ul><ul><li>2nd. Since early ’50s. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE: mnemonics for numeric code </li></ul><ul><li>3rd. Since mid ‘50s. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>4th. Since late ‘50s. MODERN APPLICATION PACKAGES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.16
  17. 17. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). Scientific, Engineering applications </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). Predominant for Transaction Processing </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). General Purpose PC Language </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.15
  18. 18. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES <ul><li>PASCAL. Used to Teach Structured Programming Practices. Weak in File Handling, Input / Output </li></ul><ul><li>C and C++. Powerful PC Language for Developing Applications. Efficient Execution; Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><li>PL/1 (Programming Language 1). Powerful IBM Language for Business & Science </li></ul><ul><li>ADA. Designed for Weapon Systems. Can be used on many Platforms. Structured. Can be used for Business </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.18
  19. 19. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LANGUAGES <ul><li>LISP (LISt Processor). Began late ‘50s at MIT. Preferred in US. Require Specially Configured Machines </li></ul><ul><li>PROLOG. Began in early ‘50s. Preferred outside US. Cross Platform </li></ul><ul><li>CREATE MEANINGFUL LISTS OF SYMBOLS (Operations; Variables; Data) </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.19
  20. 20. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>CAN BE EMPLOYED BY END USERS </li></ul><ul><li>NONPROCEDURAL </li></ul><ul><li>CAN DEVELOP APPLICATIONS QUICKLY </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL LANGUAGES </li></ul><ul><li>SIX CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.20
  21. 21. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>1. QUERY LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly retrieve data </li></ul><ul><li>interactive/ on-line </li></ul><ul><li>may use NATURAL LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>support special requests for data from relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.21
  22. 22. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>2. REPORT GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>create customized reports </li></ul><ul><li>wide range of formats </li></ul><ul><li>3. GRAPHICS LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>can manipulate drawings, graphs, photos, videos </li></ul><ul><li>presentation managers </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.22
  23. 23. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>4. APPLICATION GENERATORS: </li></ul><ul><li>user specifies computer needs </li></ul><ul><li>generator creates logic and code for application </li></ul><ul><li>greatly reduces development time </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.23
  24. 24. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>5. VERY HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>professional programmer productivity tool </li></ul><ul><li>uses fewer instructions </li></ul><ul><li>reduces development time </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.24
  25. 25. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES (4GL) <ul><li>5. SOFTWARE PACKAGE: commercially available set of programs... </li></ul><ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PACKAGES NOW COMBINE THESE TO SIMPLIFY LEARNING AND USE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.25
  26. 26. SOFTWARE TOOLS <ul><li>WORD PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>SPREADSHEETS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION GRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATED SOFTWARE SUITES </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>WEB BROWSERS </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.26
  27. 27. <ul><li>GROUP WRITING & COMMENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL DISTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING MEETINGS, APPOINTMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED FILES & DATABASES </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED TIMELINES, PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC MEETINGS & CONFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>GROUPWARE CAPABILITIES 5.25
  28. 28. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>COMBINES DATA & PROCEDURES INTO A SINGLE OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM SENDS MESSAGE TO OBJECT TO PERFORM EMBEDDED PROCEDURE </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT’S DATA ENCAPSULATED FROM REST OF SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>CREATES REUSABLE CODE </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCES TIME AND COST OF WRITING SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.28
  29. 29. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>VISUAL PROGRAMMING: SELECT AND ARRANGE OBJECTS RATHER THAN WRITE CODE </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS: ALL OBJECTS OF A CLASS HAVE ALL FEATURES OF THAT CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>INHERITANCE: SPECIFIC CLASS RECEIVES FEATURES OF A MORE GENERAL CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>OVERRIDE: SUBCLASS MAY OVEERRIDE INHERITED METHOD (e.g.: Printout of an HOURLY worker Pay Check may differ from that of a WEEKLY worker </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.29
  30. 30. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>JAVA: Sun Microsystems OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>APPLET: TINY PROGRAM TO EXECUTE SMALL FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>APPLETS DOWNLOADED FROM NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>RUN ON ANY COMPUTER & OPERATING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT SAVED ON NETWORK, NOT ON PC </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY NETWORK VERSION OF SOFTWARE NEEDS UPGRADE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.30
  31. 31. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING <ul><li>ActiveX: CONTROLS FOR WINDOWS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT to enable OBJECTS: e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>CHARTS </li></ul><ul><li>TABLES </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>to be EMBEDDED IN A WEB PAGE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>5.31
  32. 32. Connect to the INTERNET PRESS LEFT MOUSE BUTTON ON ICON TO CONNECT TO THE LAUDON & LAUDON WEB SITE FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THIS CHAPTER 5.32
  33. 33. 5.33 7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS SOFTWARE

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