A Guide to Software, 4e


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A Guide to Software, 4e

  1. 1. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 1 Introducing Operating Systems
  2. 2. Operating Systems Past and Present <ul><li>What an operating system (OS) does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides an interface for users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieves and manipulates files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The OS can be analogized to a “middleman” </li></ul><ul><li>A computer needs only one operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems have evolved to a complex form </li></ul>
  3. 3. DOS (Disk Operating System) <ul><li>The first OS used by IBM computers/compatibles </li></ul><ul><li>Where DOS can still be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized systems using older applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On troubleshooting disks or CDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x and DOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 3.x provided a graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying OS functions were performed by DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 9x/Me uses DOS in the underlying OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP/2000 run DOS emulation programs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Windows 9x/Me <ul><li>Refers to Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Combine a DOS core with graphical user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to bridge legacy and newer technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-compatible with older systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to accommodate new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cautionary note on minimum requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for upgrades and new installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May differ for installation and run-time operation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Windows NT <ul><li>Two versions of Windows NT (New Technology): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Workstation for desktops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT Server to control a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best known feature: new OS core replacing DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid installing Windows NT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT introduced many new problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems only solved in later versions of Windows </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Windows 2000 <ul><li>Upgrades Windows NT (both desktop and server) </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements over Windows NT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more stable environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for Plug and Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager, Recovery Console, Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better network support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Features specifically targeting notebook computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OS includes only qualified hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 is being phased out </li></ul>
  7. 7. Windows XP <ul><li>Integrates Windows 9x/Me and Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Two main versions: Home Edition and Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows two users to logon and open applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates Windows Messenger and Media Player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds advanced security, such as Windows Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64 MB RAM (128 MB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 GB free hard drive space (2 GB recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>233-MHz CPU speed (300-MHz recommended) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 1-8 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  9. 9. Windows Vista <ul><li>Next generation of Windows operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Code-named Longhorn </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy new features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New graphical interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revamped engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new interface between it and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduled release dates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>November 2006 for business editions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January 2007 for consumer editions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Windows Server 2003 <ul><li>Refers to a suite of Microsoft operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Small Business Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Web Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Standard Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Enterprise Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server 2003 Datacenter Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not designed for use in a PC </li></ul><ul><li>Not covered in this text </li></ul>
  11. 11. UNIX <ul><li>Comprises a class of operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX versions referred to as flavors or distributions </li></ul><ul><li>Chief uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Internet-based applications </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Linux <ul><li>Variation on UNIX created by Linus Torvalds </li></ul><ul><li>OS kernel and source code are freely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Popular distributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SuSE ( www.novell.com/linux/suse ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RedHat ( www.redhat.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TurboLinux ( www.turbolinux.com ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used as both a server and a desktop </li></ul><ul><li>X Windows: GUI shells for UNIX and Linux </li></ul>
  13. 13. OS/2 <ul><li>Jointly developed by IBM and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly used in certain types of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Part of OS/2 was incorporated into Windows NT </li></ul><ul><li>OS/2 is not covered in this book </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mac OS <ul><li>First introduced in 1984 with Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Current version: Mac OS X (ten) </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X can work on some Intel-based computers </li></ul><ul><li>Markets: education, desktop publishing, graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Noteworthy features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for graphics and multimedia capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the Finder program to provide the desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior Plug and Play capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent support for multitasking </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 1-10 The Mac OS X desktop is intuitive and easy to use
  16. 16. What an Operating System Does <ul><li>Four functions common to all operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All OSs also have similar core components </li></ul>
  17. 17. Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive <ul><li>Hard drives are organized into partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of partitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary: can only have one logical drive; e.g., C: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended: can have one or more logical drives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logical drive (sometimes called a volume) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted using a file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a root directory and subdirectories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disk Management tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create/view partitions, format logical drives </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Real (16-bit), Protected (32-bit), and Long (64-bit) Operating Modes <ul><li>Bit type: number of bits simultaneously processed </li></ul><ul><li>Real (16-bit) mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposes hardware to application (no longer used) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected (32-bit) and Long (64-bit) modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OS controls how an application accesses hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preemptive multitasking is supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Windows XP Professional x64 Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprocessing involves multiple CPUs </li></ul>
  19. 19. 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit Software <ul><li>16-bit software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows 3.x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data access is 16 bits at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>32-bit programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows NT/2000/XP and Windows 9x/Me </li></ul></ul><ul><li>64-bit programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for Windows XP Professional x64 Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most software today is 32-bit or 64-bit </li></ul>
  20. 20. An OS Manages Hardware <ul><li>OS interacts with hardware using drivers or BIOS </li></ul><ul><li>Software falls into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device drivers or the BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. How an OS Manages Memory <ul><li>Memory functions performed by OS at startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launches utilities to manage memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns addresses to each location of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers, OS, and application use memory addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables three software layers to refer to shared data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16-bit program in real mode has direct access to RAM </li></ul><ul><li>The OS controls memory access in protected mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The address spaces of a program is protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory expands number of running programs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. OS Tools to Examine a System <ul><li>A variety of tools are available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Windows Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My Computer and Windows Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 1-30 The Windows XP desktop and Start menu
  24. 24. Control Panel <ul><li>Contains applets used to manage the system </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing Control Panel in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Start and the click Control Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two views: Category View and Classic View </li></ul><ul><li>Applets can be launched via the Run dialog box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: enter Main.cpl to open Mouse Properties </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 1-49 Windows XP Device Manager gives information about devices and allows you to uninstall a device
  26. 26. System Information <ul><li>Used to view detailed information about the system </li></ul><ul><li>Important features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS version you are using </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The directory where the OS is installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How system resources are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about drivers and their status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To open utility, enter Msinfo32.exe in Run dialog box </li></ul>
  27. 27. Windows Help and the Microsoft Web Site <ul><li>Key guide to system </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent troubleshooting resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: analyze problem with Internet connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Web site: http://support.microsoft.com </li></ul><ul><li>Use search engine to locate alternative resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the alternative site is reputable </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Keystroke Shortcuts in the OS <ul><li>Simplify interaction with the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function keys: F4, F5, F8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text editing operations: Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V, Ctrl+x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shortcut keys are critical when mouse is not working </li></ul>