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4

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Software Basics: The Ghost in the Machine
  2. 2. Three Major Categories of Software <ul><li>Compilers and other translator programs, which allow programmers to create other software </li></ul><ul><li>Software applications, which serve as productivity tools to help users solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>System software, which coordinates hardware operations and does behind-the-scenes work the user seldom sees </li></ul>
  3. 3. Software Applications: Tools for Users <ul><li>Software applications include: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Software </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical-market or Custom Software </li></ul>
  4. 4. Consumer Applications <ul><li>Consumer software differs from other types (music CDs, videos, etc.) based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of ownership/license </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Documentation <ul><li>Documentation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed tutorial and reference manuals that explain how to use the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line manuals and help screens which offer immediate help to the user </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Upgrades allow you to pay a fee to get the latest software version </li></ul><ul><li>Newer releases often have additional features and fewer bugs </li></ul>Upgrades
  7. 7. Compatibility <ul><li>Compatibility allows software to function properly with the hardware, operating system, and peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Programs written for one type of computer system may not work on another </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disclaimers <ul><li>Software manufacturers limit their liability for software problems by selling software “as is” </li></ul><ul><li>Given the difficulty of this task, most programs work amazingly well—but not perfectly </li></ul>
  9. 9. Licensing <ul><li>Licensing agreements limit your right to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make copies of software disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>install software on hard drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer information to other users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial software is copyrighted so it can’t be legally duplicated for distribution to others. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Distribution <ul><li>Software is distributed through direct sales forces to corporations and other institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Software is sold to consumers through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retail stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mail-order catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles <ul><li>Multipurpose software includes most of these modules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Integrated Software: Advantages <ul><li>Costs less than buying the applications individually </li></ul><ul><li>Data is easily transferred between modules </li></ul><ul><li>Commands used in each module are usually the same </li></ul><ul><li>Usually there is a seamless integration of the modules </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vertical-Market and Custom Software <ul><li>Job-specific software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical billings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurant management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-client software needs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection <ul><li>System software is a class of software that includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What the Operating System Does <ul><li>The operating system controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication with peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of concurrent processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of resources and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of programs and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating network communications </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Utility Programs <ul><ul><li>translating files so different software can read them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guarding against viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repairing damaged files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>copying files from one storage device to another </li></ul></ul>Operating System invokes utility programs so they appear to the user to be part of the OS. Device drivers are an example.
  17. 17. The User Interface: The Human-Machine Connection <ul><li>The user interface is what the user sees on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>Two major user interface types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character-based interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. A Character-Based Interface: MS-DOS <ul><li>This is a disk operating system in which the user interacts using characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbols </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A Character-Based User Interface: MS-DOS <ul><li>MS-DOS™ is the most widely used general-purpose operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Features include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line interface (commands are typed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu-driven interface (commands are chosen from on-screen lists) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Graphical User Interfaces: Macintosh <ul><li>This is a disk operating system in which the user interacts with the computer by using a pointing device (e.g. a mouse) </li></ul><ul><li>As early as 1984, the Macintosh™ computer was designed with this interface in mind </li></ul>
  21. 21. Graphical User Interfaces: Windows <ul><li>Windows 95 and 98 are similar in many ways to the Mac OS </li></ul><ul><li>Several versions of Windows exist for business and home users </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why WIMP Won <ul><li>W indows, I cons, M enus, and P ointing devices </li></ul><ul><li>They’re intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>They’re consistent </li></ul><ul><li>They’re forgiving </li></ul><ul><li>They’re protective </li></ul><ul><li>They’re flexible </li></ul>
  23. 23. Three Main Platforms for Desktops Computers <ul><li>Various versions of UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>Windows in all its variations </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hardware & Software Platforms <ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Windows ME </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s OS/2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS/9 </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS/X </li></ul><ul><li>Linux & UNIX </li></ul>

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