•“Encountering The Book of Hebrews” by Donald A. Hagner, Baker Academic, 2004
•“The Message of Hebrews” by John R. W. Stott, Inter-Varsity Press, 1982
•Dr. Chuck Missler, YouTube Video on Hebrews
•“Angels-True Stories” by Robert J. Morgan, Nelson Publishers, 2011
Why is studying Hebrews difficult?
•It depends heavily on the Old Testament for its argument.
•Using Old Testament scriptures for an argument for Christianity evokes feeling of unfamiliarity.
•We are not knowledgeable about Jewish practices.
Introduction to Hebrews
•Nick 5 W -
•Author –Speculation only
–“Intellectual Hebrew Christian well versed in the Old Testament”
•The absolute supremacyand sufficiencyof Jesus Christ as revealerand as mediatorof God’s grace.
•To encourage converts to Christianity to remain strong and to mature in their faith.
•Comfort Christians in their persecutions
•Converts to Christianity were being persecuted by the Jewish leaders & Romans
•Stephen was stoned to death –Acts 7:59
•James the Apostle killed –Acts 12:2
•Converts were tempted to renounce Christianity (Apostasy) to avoid persecution
•Hebrews probably written while Temple was still standing in Jerusalem –Before 70 A.D.
•Roman persecution began under Agrippa I in 41 A.D.
•Persecution continued under Nero 64-68 A.D.
•Not written to a specific church
•Readers were very familiar with Judaism and its practices.
•Christians who were in areas under Roman rule with a Jewish population
The 3 Pillars of Judaism
3.Levitical Priesthood under Aaron
Hebrews -Jesus is superior to all of the above
•Definition = Latin term: “a fuller or deeper sense”
•Sensus plenior in interpretation of the Old Testament
–Christ’s fulfillment of the OT Scriptures gives it a deeper meaning
–Writer of Hebrews uses this to show Jesus’ superiority
–Judaism finds its fulfillment in Christianity
Hebrews 1:1-2a God’s Supreme Revelation
1 In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, 2a but in these last dayshe has spoken to us by his Son,
•(The writer does not use the name of Jesus until Hebrews 2:9)
•Colossians3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly…..
Hebrews 1: 2b-3“7 Descriptions of the Son”
2b whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. 3 The Son is the radiance of God's gloryand the exact representation of his being, sustaining all thingsby his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven.
“heir of all things”
•Inheritance in Israel was the right of the firstborn son.
•Colossians 1:16 “… all things were created for him.”
“through whom he made the universe”
16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him.
•The Son was present at creation.
•Let usmake man…Genesis 1:26
“the radiance of God’s glory”
•The Son uniquely manifests the glory of God.
2 Corinthians 4:6
6 For God, who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," made his light shine in our hearts to give us the light of the knowledge of God's glory displayed in the face of Christ.
•To see Jesus is to see the glory of God
“exact representation of his being”
•The Son exactly represents God’s essence
•Greek word origin –“stamp or impress”
•The idea behind the Greek word is that of the die and the image it stamps on a coin.
15a The Son is the image of the invisible God,
“sustaining all things”
•The tense of the Greek verb translated to ‘sustaining’ points to the Son’s present and ongoing activity in upholding all that exists.
•This sustaining activity is accomplished “by his powerful word”.
“provided purification for sins,”
•Jewish converts understood the concept of the priest offering a sacrifice for sins.
•The main purpose of Christ’s coming into the world was to make an offering for sin, but to do so by offering himself.
“sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in heaven”
•Sitting at the right hand indicates a completed work.
•The Son shares God’s sovereign authority because of this position.
•“It is finished!”
•The Son is described as the one who embodies in himself the 3 OT offices of:
–Prophet, Priest and King
7 Descriptions of the Son
1.He is the heir of all things.
2.Through the Son the ages were made.
3.He is the brightness of God’s glory.
4.He is the image of the Father.
5.He upholds all things by His power.
6.He made purification for sin.
7.He sits down on majesty on high
4 So he became as much superior to the angels as the name he has inheritedis superior to theirs.
•A namestood for the full character of a person
•The name “Son” could not be claimed by any angel
Jewish Worship of Angels
•Some worshiped God by worshipping angels
•Jews considered angels exalted beings
•Angels were involved in the giving of the law at Sinai
•Believed Archangel Michael would be a supreme figure in the Messianic Kingdom
A Chain of 7 OT QuotesHebrews 1:5-13
•Author now provides a “deeper meaning” (sensus plenoir) of the Old Testament
•A Christ-centered interpretation of OT scripture
•Scriptures that show the superiority of Christ to the angels
5 For to which of the angels did God ever say, "You are my Son; today I have become your Father"?
•Quote from Psalm 2:7
•The relationship of Father-Son is unique
5b Or again, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son“
•Quote from 2 Samuel 7:14
•The Son is head of the Davidic Covenant
–Promise that a descendant of David will establish a kingdom that will have no end.
6 And again, when God brings his firstborn into the world, he says, "Let all God's angels worship him.”
•Quote from Deuteronomy 32:43 (LXX)
–In Septuagint (pre-Christian Greek translation and Dead Sea Scrolls) and not Hebrew Bible or Masoretic Text (basis for English translation)
7 In speaking of the angels he says, "He makes his angels spirits (winds), and his servants flames of fire.“
•Quote from Psalm 104:4
•Angels worship Christ because they recognize Him as of a totally different and far superior nature to theirs.
8 But about the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, will last for ever and ever; a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom. 9 You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness; therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions by anointing you with the oil of joy.“
•Quote from Psalm 45:6-7
•The Son will rule the Kingdom
Hebrews 1: 10-12
10 He also says, "In the beginning, Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. 11 They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. 12 You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will never end.”
•Quote from Psalm 102:25-27
13 To which of the angels did God ever say, "Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet"?
•Quote from Psalm 110:1
•Christ presently reigns at God’s right hand
•When evil is defeated at the judgment, these enemies will be made a footstool
Son’s Superiority: His DeitySummary Hebrews 1:4-13
1.Son’s unique position –Son
2.Son head of Davidic Covenant
3.Angels worship the Son
4.Angels serve the Son
5.Son to rule the Kingdom
6.Son is Creator
7.Son enthroned at right hand of God
Hebrews 1:14Role of Angels
14 Are not all angels ministering spiritssent to serve those who will inherit salvation?
•Angels minister as those sent to serve
Angels –234 Bible References
•Present at creation –Job 38:7; Ezekiel 28:13
•Exist to do God’s bidding –Psalm 103:20-21
•Travel swiftly between heaven/earth – Genesis 28
•Constantly patrol the earth –Zechariah 1:10
•Often described in military terms –Joshua 5
Angels: Power & Personality
•Paranormal powers –Isaiah 37:36
–Can have visible bodies
•Power to observe our lives –Acts 12
•Strength is multiplied by numbers –Job 25
•Fellow servants with us
Angels in the Life of Christ
•Announced His coming to His parents
•Announced His birth to shepherds
•Ministered during temptation in wilderness
•Strengthened Him while praying
•Tended His grave site and announced resurrection
Angels Deliver Us From Judgment
•Angels worship incessantly –our worship leaders in heaven
•Accountable to God’s holiness and subject to judgment
•Agents who dispense God’s judgment and administer chastisement
•Deliver God’s people from judgment
Angels Watching Over You
•Transport blessings to our lives
•Protect us from danger
•Cheer the spirit
•Assist God in answering our prayers
•Teach us to Worship
•Usher us to heaven –Christ has paved the way, and the angels will see to it that we don’t make the trip alone!
•Christ is the Son of God.
•Our faith and worship should be focused on Christ.
•Christ is God coming to us to accomplish our salvation.
6 Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”