Roles of executives


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  • The organizing function will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7. In this chapter, however, we will discuss the three levels of a corporate hierarchy--top, middle, bottom--commonly known as the management pyramid.
    In general, top managers are the upper-level managers who have the most power and who take overall responsibility for the organization. An example is the chief executive officer (CEO). Top managers establish the structure for the organization as a whole, and they select the people who fill the upper-level positions. Top managers also make long-range plans, establish major policies, and represent the company to the outside world at official functions and fund-raisers.
  • What managers do can be integrated with any of the four perspectives. In fact the type of work managers perform will probably differ between the “perspectives” discussed in the previous slides.
  • Planning is the primary management function, the one on which all others depend. Managers engaged in planning develop strategies for success, establish goals and objectives for the organization, and translate their strategies and goals into action plans.
  • Organizing, the process of arranging resources to carry out the organization’s plans, is the second major function of managers. During the organizing stage, managers think through all the activities that employees carry out (from programming the organization’s computers to mailing its letters), as well as all the facilities and equipment employees need in order to complete those activities. They also give people the ability to work toward organizational goals by determining who will have the authority to make decisions, to perform or supervise activities, and to distribute resources.
  • Leading—the process of influencing and motivating people to work effectively and willingly toward company goals—is the third basic function of management. Leading becomes even more challenging in today’s business environment, where individuals who have different backgrounds and unique interests, ambitions, and personal goals are melded into a productive work team.
  • Controlling is the fourth basic managerial function. In management, controlling means monitoring a firm’s progress toward meeting its organizational goals and objectives, resetting the course if goals or objectives change in response to shifting conditions, and correcting deviations if goals or objectives are not being attained.
  • This exhibit summarizes discussion of the three sets of skills discussed in chapter one, as essential to good managerial performance. The exhibit has been modified for presentation, and is animated to permit point-by-point discussion.
    I like to stress to students that too often managers over-rely on interpersonal skills. However, careers in management depend heavily on the managers technical skills, and especially on the managers conceptual skills. That is also seen in Exhibit 1.6, which follows this slide.
  • Exhibit 1.6 is found on page 33 of the text. It is animated to permit point-by-point discussion of the three managerial skills.
    This slide shows the relative importance of the three skills at different levels of management. This slide clearly shows the growing importance of conceptual skills, as one progresses “up the corporate ladder.” It should be pointed out that the relative importance of each skill may not be accurately portrayed, but that it is probably a fair representation. The slide is animated to aid in the discussion.
  • Exhibit 1.7 I seen on page 33 of the text) is presented on three animated slides to permit point-by-point discussion. Three slides were taken to permit larger sized text which should be readable from the audience in most classrooms. However, they will appear seamlessly as “one” slide as the exhibit progresses, if presented in the “View Show” mode.
  • Roles of executives

    1. 1. Roles & Functions of Executives
    2. 2. Overview  The Management Pyramid  Management Styles  3 +1 Roles of Management  4 Functions of Management
    3. 3. Layers of Management  Operative management  coordination and control of direct work  Business operations management  competition, markets, resources  Strategic management  long term planning, visions, ’reading’ the environment  Institutional management  legitimating, society, ’lobbying’
    4. 4. Types of Managers  Top Management: executives  CEO  President  VP  Middle Management: directors  Project Managers  First-line management  Superintendent  Chief Estimator  Non-supervisory employees
    5. 5. The Management Pyramid First-lineFirst-line ManagersManagers MiddleMiddle ManagersManagers TopTop ManagersManagers
    6. 6. What Managers Do  Managerial activities differ by  The functions managers serve  The roles in which managers operate  The dimensions of each manager’s job
    7. 7. Mintzberg (1975): The Roles of Management  Roles in interaction: Interpersonal  Head of an organization  Leader  Center of communication  Communicative roles: Informational  Surveillant  Information sharer  Spokesperson
    8. 8. Mintzberg (1975): The Roles of Management  Roles in decision making: Decisional  Entrepreneur  Problem solver  Resource allocator  Negotiator  Role as change agent: Innovation
    9. 9. InformationalInformationalInformationalInformational DecisionalDecisionalDecisionalDecisional InterpersonalInterpersonalInterpersonalInterpersonal + Innovator!
    10. 10. The Manager as Innovator  The entrepreneurial process  The competence building process  The renewal process
    11. 11. The Functions of Management  Planning  Organizing  Staffing  Leading  Directing  Controlling
    12. 12. The Functions of Management Planning Controlling Organizing Directing Environment Phases in theory Phases in practice
    13. 13. Function 1: Planning Develop Strategies for Success Set Goals and Objectives Develop Action Plans
    14. 14. Function 2: Organizing Employee ActivitiesEmployee Activities Facilities and EquipmentFacilities and Equipment Decision MakingDecision Making SupervisionSupervision Resource DistributionResource Distribution
    15. 15. Function 3: Directing ImplementingImplementing PlansPlans ImplementingImplementing PlansPlans MotivatingMotivating PeoplePeople MotivatingMotivating PeoplePeople
    16. 16. Function 4: Controlling Monitoring Progress Resetting the Course Correcting Deviations
    17. 17. Functions of Management Versus Leadership 1/2  Management produces Order and Consistency  Planning / Budgeting  Establish agendas  Set time tables  Allocate resources  Organizing / Staffing  Provide structure  Make job placements  Establish rules and procedures  Leadership produces Change and Movement  Establishing Direction  Create a vision  Clarify big picture  Set strategies  Aligning People  Communicate goals  Seek commitment  Build teams and coalitions
    18. 18. Functions of Management Versus Leadership 2/2  Management  Controlling / Problem Solving  Develop incentives  Generate creative solutions  Take corrective action  Leadership  Motivating and Inspiring  Inspire and energize  Empower subordinates  Satisfy unmet needs John P. Kotter 1990
    19. 19. What Skills Do Managers Need? (Katz 1955)  Interpersonal skills  Sensitivity  Persuasiveness  Empathy  Conceptual skills  Logical reasoning  Judgment  Analytical abilities Adapted from Exhibit 1.5: Managers’ Skills  Technical skills  Specialized knowledge  (Including when and how to use the skills)
    20. 20. Importance Importance of Managerial Skills at Different Organizational Levels High Low Entry Level Managers Mid-Level Managers Top Level Managers Adapted from Exhibit 1.6: Relative Importance of Managerial Skills at Different Organizational Levels Interpersonal skills Technical skills Conceptual skills
    22. 22. Who Succeeds? Who Doesn’t Potential managerial leaders share traits early on: Have survived stressful situations Frequently described as moody or volatile. May be able to keep their temper with superiors during crises but are hostile toward peers and subordinates. Maintain composure in stressful situations, are predictable during crises, are regarded as calm and confident. Those who don’t quite make it: Those who succeed: Adapted from Exhibit 1.7: Who Succeeds? Who Doesn't? Bright, with outstanding track records Have been successful, but generally only in one area or type of job. Have diverse track records, demonstrated ability in many different situations, and a breadth of knowledge of the business or industry.
    23. 23. Who Succeeds? Who Doesn’t Potential managerial leaders share traits early on: Ambitious and oriented toward problem solving May attempt to micro- manage a position, ignoring future prospects, may staff with the incorrect people or neglect the talents they have, may depend too much on a single mentor, calling their own decision-making ability into question. While focusing on problem solutions, keep their minds focused on the next position, help develop competent successors, seek advice from many sources. Those who don’t quite make it: Those who succeed: Adapted from Exhibit 1.7: Who Succeeds? Who Doesn't? Have a few flaws Cover up problems while trying to fix them. If the prob- lem can’t be hidden, they tend to go on the defensive and even blame someone else for it. Make a few mistakes, but when they do, they admit to them and handle them with poise and grace.