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The Ports Corporation
Aqaba - Jordan
The Evolution of Ports in a Competitive World
Impacts of Globalization on Ports: technological changes (1/5)
Containerization of world trade
Future containership desi...
Impacts of technological changes (2/5)
Future containership & Gantry Crane designs
Impacts of technological changes (3/5)
Need for container port productivity improvements
Impacts of technological changes (4/5)
 Impact of increasing port productivity on voyage cost per
TEU
‫الواحدة‬ ‫الحاوية‬...
“Production” process and time spent in the port
Growing role of information technology
Port requirements for large cruise ships
Other technology impacting port service...
Environmental Security and safety concerns
Growing environmental concerns:
Oily ballast water discharge
Water pollution...
PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE
TO CUSTOMERS
•Which markets ?
•What concerns ?
•Which strategy ?
•What expectations ?
PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS
 Tramping
 Lines
•Operationwise: Usual offer (propose) to shippers.
•Regulation...
Lines
• Mainly involve:
- general cargo
conventional
containers
roro
• Generally eliminate :
- specialised trades
THE SHIP...
WHICH MARKETS ? Lines ’ concerns
• ROUTES
Three east/west routes
Some north/south routes
Multiple regional routes
• FIN...
THE MAIN OPERATORS OF CONTAINER VESSELS
(October 2002)(October 2002)
Source : www.alphaliner.com
0 50 ,0 00 10 0,0 0
0
15 ...
LINES ’ CONCERNS
Financial Stakes
 Increasing Costs
 Variable costs
 Logistics
 Ship
 Voyage
 Structure
 Decreasing...
FINANCIAL STAKES
Costs
Variable costs = 43 %
 Port operations 10% Maximum
 Agency fees
 Inland transport
 Empties rep...
FINANCIAL STAKES Costs
 Ship = 23 %
=> Daily costs – Crew +
Supplies + Maintenance +
Insurance
=> Financial costs –
 A...
FINANCIAL STAKES
Costs
Voyage = 14 %
=> Port expenses = Pilot - Tugs - Linesmen - Port dues
 => Suez & Panama
 => Fuel...
PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS
Shipowner’s Strategy
•What ambition ?
• What target ?
• How to compete ?
What Amb...
Reducing the slot-cost
The Ship
 The Route
 A Tailor-made Welcome
 Alliances
……………………………………………………………………………………
The Shi...
TRANSHIPMENT
MUCH MORE MOVES !
A
B
200
800
A
B
200
800 + 2 x 200
= 1200
A
B
200
800
C
2 x 800 + 2 x 200
= 2000
WHAT EXPECTATIONS ?
Reducing the slot-cost
 A Tailor-made Welcome
• Rapidity
• Reliability
 Navigation Equipment
 Assis...
Reducing the slot-cost
Alliances / Cooperation
=> Slot agreements
=> Consortium
⇒ Coordinated services
Increasing the ne...
• Equipment
• Organisation
PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE
TO THE CUSTOMERS
WHAT OPERATIONS ?
• Men
• Future
MEN
• Number
• Training
• Skills
WHAT OPERATIONS ?
WHAT OPERATIONS ?
ORGANISATION
• Internal: social facts
• External: port operators,customs, health control, other professi...
FUTURE
• Port Reforme & Régulation
• Private involvement
(Concessions & Lease
Contracts)
• Hi-Tech involvement
(equipment,...
Thank you for your kind attention
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Container ports future

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Container ports future

  1. 1. The Ports Corporation Aqaba - Jordan The Evolution of Ports in a Competitive World
  2. 2. Impacts of Globalization on Ports: technological changes (1/5) Containerization of world trade Future containership designs Impact on port operations: Reduction of ship’s time in port and at berth Reduction of personnel requirements for cargo handling Raise of berth productivity Increase of capital intensity of port operations Source Drewry 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Empty Full Total Containerization of world trade (in Million TEU)
  3. 3. Impacts of technological changes (2/5) Future containership & Gantry Crane designs
  4. 4. Impacts of technological changes (3/5) Need for container port productivity improvements
  5. 5. Impacts of technological changes (4/5)  Impact of increasing port productivity on voyage cost per TEU ‫الواحدة‬ ‫الحاوية‬ ‫نقل‬ ‫كلفة‬ ‫قلت‬ ‫الميناء‬ ‫إنتاجية‬ ‫زادت‬ ‫و‬ ‫السفينة‬ ‫حجم‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫كلما‬
  6. 6. “Production” process and time spent in the port
  7. 7. Growing role of information technology Port requirements for large cruise ships Other technology impacting port services : podded drive propulsion systems, self unloading bulk carriers, Sat Information System, Mobile Text Messages with costumers… Impacts of technological changes (5/5)
  8. 8. Environmental Security and safety concerns Growing environmental concerns: Oily ballast water discharge Water pollution, air pollution, aesthetics (appreciation of beautiful arts), noise. Issue of sub-standard ships Port State Control Regional cooperation Security Measures: Compulsory Requirements
  9. 9. PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS •Which markets ? •What concerns ? •Which strategy ? •What expectations ?
  10. 10. PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS  Tramping  Lines •Operationwise: Usual offer (propose) to shippers. •Regulationwise - Open to the public - Published schedule - Permanent ports of call WHICH MARKETS ?
  11. 11. Lines • Mainly involve: - general cargo conventional containers roro • Generally eliminate : - specialised trades THE SHIP MAKES THE DECISION WHICH MARKETS ?
  12. 12. WHICH MARKETS ? Lines ’ concerns • ROUTES Three east/west routes Some north/south routes Multiple regional routes • FINANCIAL STAKES • OPERATORS 10 Shipowners control 50% of the capacity 20 control 72% 12 asian shipowners control 33%
  13. 13. THE MAIN OPERATORS OF CONTAINER VESSELS (October 2002)(October 2002) Source : www.alphaliner.com 0 50 ,0 00 10 0,0 0 0 15 0, 0 0 0 2 00, 00 0 2 50 ,00 0 3 00 ,0 0 0 3 50 ,0 0 0 400 , 0 0 0 45 0,0 0 0 50 0,0 0 0 55 0, 0 0 0 6 0 0, 00 0 65 0, 00 0 7 00 ,0 0 0 7 50 ,00 0 8 00 ,00 0 Pacific International Lines-(40)-Singapour CSAV Group-(40)-Chili Yang Ming Line-(70)-Taiwan Hyundaï-(50)-Korea Hapag-Lloyd Group-(40)-Germany China Shipping Group-(54)-China Zim (87)-Israel OOCL-(50)-China Mitsui OSK Line-(70)-Japan K Line-(80)-Japan CP Ships Group-(83)-Canada NYK-(73)-Japan CMA/CGM-(85)-France COSCO Container Lines-(135)-China APL/NOL-(70)-Singapour Hanjin/Senator-(50)-Korea Mediterranean Shg Co-(120 M.V)-Swiss P & O Nedlloyd-(100)-UK/NL Evergreen-(160)-Taiwan Maersk-Sealand+SCL-(250)-Denmark
  14. 14. LINES ’ CONCERNS Financial Stakes  Increasing Costs  Variable costs  Logistics  Ship  Voyage  Structure  Decreasing Revenues
  15. 15. FINANCIAL STAKES Costs Variable costs = 43 %  Port operations 10% Maximum  Agency fees  Inland transport  Empties repositioning  Logistics = 13 % Some logistics costs are considered as variable Containers 2.5 times the ship ’s capacity i.e. 3500 x 2.5 = 8750 boxes => USD 20M 2 sets are needed during the ship ’s lifetime i.e. 8750 x 2 = 17500 boxes => USD 40M
  16. 16. FINANCIAL STAKES Costs  Ship = 23 % => Daily costs – Crew + Supplies + Maintenance + Insurance => Financial costs –  A 5500 teu ship value is USD 52 M when built in Asia Return on capital stocks + Resale value
  17. 17. FINANCIAL STAKES Costs Voyage = 14 % => Port expenses = Pilot - Tugs - Linesmen - Port dues  => Suez & Panama  => Fuel-oil  Structure = 7 %  Management staff  Running costs  Data processing  Control of equipment  Marketing
  18. 18. PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS Shipowner’s Strategy •What ambition ? • What target ? • How to compete ? What Ambition ? •Thinking global • Looking for a niche (suitable place) where nobody came before ! ... alone …but for how long ? What target ? • Reducing the slot-cost • Increasing the net income per box
  19. 19. Reducing the slot-cost The Ship  The Route  A Tailor-made Welcome  Alliances …………………………………………………………………………………… The Ship • Capacity teu / tonnage 4 000 teu -> 11,25 USD / TEU 5 500 teu -> 10,90 USD / TEU 6 000 teu -> 10,50 USD / TEU 8 000 teu -> 10,20 USD / TEU 10 000 teu -> 9,40 USD / TEU • Speed: more knot/day -> -> Less days (20-40 knots/hr … High Speed Ships For New Container Ports). • Number of ships: A fixed day call depends on the number of ships as well as the transit time • Origine of ships: shipyard / second hand / shipbroker
  20. 20. TRANSHIPMENT MUCH MORE MOVES ! A B 200 800 A B 200 800 + 2 x 200 = 1200 A B 200 800 C 2 x 800 + 2 x 200 = 2000
  21. 21. WHAT EXPECTATIONS ? Reducing the slot-cost  A Tailor-made Welcome • Rapidity • Reliability  Navigation Equipment  Assistance to the ship  Port Operations Facilities • Competitiveness  Port Expenses: Negotiable Tarif System !!!  Inland costs
  22. 22. Reducing the slot-cost Alliances / Cooperation => Slot agreements => Consortium ⇒ Coordinated services Increasing the net income per box => Where is the cargo ? ⇒ Which inland network ?  what about the Port Aurthority in this matter ?  How to talk to a customer ? => => The Customer should make his free site visits and introduce his comments, notes, questions and demands. PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS
  23. 23. • Equipment • Organisation PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO THE CUSTOMERS WHAT OPERATIONS ? • Men • Future
  24. 24. MEN • Number • Training • Skills WHAT OPERATIONS ?
  25. 25. WHAT OPERATIONS ? ORGANISATION • Internal: social facts • External: port operators,customs, health control, other professions EQUIPMENT • Terminals: ports must improve the draft limitations to recieve larger ships which will reduce the transport cost (slot cost). This will improve the port competitivness. • Interfaces/ Information Technologie + Security • Cranes Fast Container Scanning Sycho – Scan System
  26. 26. FUTURE • Port Reforme & Régulation • Private involvement (Concessions & Lease Contracts) • Hi-Tech involvement (equipment, IT Systems) • New méthode of how to talk to a costumer. • Commitments & Security • Ability to receive large ships. RESULTS ASSESSMENT • Traffic evolution • Professional Press • Feedback from local agents PORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE TO CUSTOMERS
  27. 27. Thank you for your kind attention

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