The history of dams is a long and oftentimes controversial one. In
fact, the oldest known stone dam in the world, the
Sadd Al-Kafara in Egypt, was constructed some 4,000 years ago for
reasons that are not quite clear and disputed by
historians to this very day.
Rogun Dam:- The highest dam ever built is the Rogun Dam,
across the River Vakhsh in the southern part of Tajikstan. There
were intial problems in building this dam and the project was
shelved temporarily. However later on a partnership was formed
with Russia in order to complete the project, accomplished in
1990. This dam is 335 meters high, making it the highest dam in
the world today.
Nurek Dam:- This Dam stands next to rogun Dam on Vakhsh
river in height. The Dam located in central Asia this is the
world’s largest rock fill dam and is the second highest dam in
the world as well. It was constructed between 1961 and 1980.
Nurek Dam has 9 units generating hydroelectric power. These
units were installed between 1972 and 1979.
Grand Dixence (Switzerland):- Grand Dixence is the third
highest dam in the world with 285 meters height. Built to hold
back Lac Des Dix in Switzerland, it is 4 kilometers long and it
holds 400 million cubic meters of water. Though the river
Dixence is one of the smaller rivers in the area, water collects
here in large quantities due to tunnels which bring in water
from other sources. It is also the highest Dam in Europe.
Inguri (Georgia):- Inguri is amongst the highest dams in
the world with a height of 272 meters. It is a hydroelectric
dam located in Georgia. The Inguri power station is
located in Abkhazia where the dam is built on the Inguri
River. Construction of this dam began in 1961 however it
was completed only in 1987. There are five generators at
the Inguri Power Station.
Chicoasen (Mexico):- It is located about 40 km from Tuxtle,
capital of the Mexican state of Chiapas. It is also known as
Sumidero Canyon and canyon is regarded as an important
tourist attraction in the state of Chiapas. The chicoasen is the
home to a great variety of wildlife including corocodiles. It is
the 5th largest dam in the world with a height of 261 meters.
Tehri Dam (India):- The Dam was constructed amidst the
ensuing chaos of opposition. Tehri dam was built close to the
town of Garhwal, India, in order to trap the water from the
basin of the uppen Ganga, at the Bhilanganga and Bhagirathi
confluence. The height of the dam is about 260 meters and it is
the 6th highest dam in the world.
Xiaowan Dam:- It is seventh highest dam in the world with
a height of 258 meters. It is also going to be the world’s 4th
largest Dam in terms of hydroelectric power. Construction
on the Xiaowan Dam was started in January of 2002, and
continues today. This hydroelectric arch Dam, on the River
Lancany in South West China. Each power-generating units
will have a 700 MW capacity.
Eratan Dam (China):- The Eratan Dam is a largest Dam on the
Yalong River in Southwest China. The total
electricity generation capacity of the facility is 3,300 MW, one
of the largest hydroelectric stations in China. The dam has six
hydroelectric generators, each with a generating capacity of
550 MW. Construction of the Dam started on September 1991
and was completed on December 26, 1999. Ertan Dam is 245
meters in height with huge water capacity.
Sayano-Shushensk Dam:- It is the largest power plant in Russia and the
ninth highest Dam in the world having 245 meters height. It is located
on the Yenisei River near Sayanogorsk. It is also the sixth-largest
hydroelectric plant in the world. The head of the power plant is Valery
Kyari. It is by far the larger of only two gravity-arch dams in Russia.
The Dam is constructed to “Safely” withstand earthquakes up to 8 on
Richter scale, and was recorded by the Guinnes Book of world
records as the strongest construction of its type.
Alvaro Obregon Dam:- Construction for the Alvaro Obregon Dam took
five years to complete, beginning in 1947. The largest Dam in the
state, it is built on the river Yaqui. It is also the 10th highest Dam
having 244 meters height. Not only is it important for local irrigation
and hydraulic works, it is also a tourist attraction because of the
beauty of the surrounding scenery