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Conservation of energy
Prepared By: Engr. Ahmad Sameer NawabKardan UniversityKabul, Afghanistan
Outline• Introduction• Forms And Sources Of Energy• Energy in Afghanistan• Sources Of Energy In Afghanistan• Energy rate & consumption• How to conserve energy in Afghanistan
Definition• Generally Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do or accomplishwork.Energy ConservationEnergy Conservation Is Efficiently Reducing The Amount Of Power Required To Carry OutOperations.
Nothing Is CreatedNothing Is DestroyedEverything Is TransformedThen……… There is A Definite Cycle
Sustainable Energy Is A Three-Legged StoolImprove Efficiency , Technology Do More With Less!Conservation, Use Less As Much AsPossibleRenewable Energy, Invest For The Present AndFuture
Forms OF Energy1. There Are 8 Kinds Of Energy Exists In Our Daily Live2. Mechanical (Kinetic And Potential)3. Chemical4. Nuclear5. Heat6. Light7. Electrical8. Sound
Forms OF EnergyMechanical energy isThe energy of motion (kinetic) and the energy of position (potential)Chemical energy isThe energy that bonds molecules together.Nuclear energyEnergy locked in the nuclei of atoms.Thermal (heat) energyEnergy of moving and vibrating moleculesA specific kind of kinetic energy.Light energyHot objects like a filament lamp or a gas mantle give off lightLight is a form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrical energyEnergy of moving electronsElectrical appliances use it to operateSound energyVibrating objects produce soundA form of energy detected by the ear. Music and noise are sound.
A person uses about:55 Calories while sleeping for 1 hour210 Calories while walking for 1 hour850 Calories while running for 1 hourA Calorie (C) is a unit to measure energy in foods.1 Calorie is equal to about 4,184 Joules.
• Non-Renewable energy is energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earthin limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now.• Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on ourhealth• Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal.Renewable & Nonrenewable Energy• Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources• They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet.• E.g. : energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants .Coal , petroleum and natural gas and propane are also known as fossil fuelsRequire millions of years of natural processes to be produced and cannot be replenished ( non-renewable)
Every Day The Earth Receives An Amount Of SolarEnergy Equal To 30 Years Of World Fossil Fuel EnergyUse.If Concentrated, The Sun Light That Fall On The HoodOf A Car Would Be Enough Power To Boil A Pot OfWater In A Minute
• The Energy Utilized From Sun Light Is Called Solar Energy• There Are Two Methods For Harvesting Solar EnergyConcentrating Solar Thermal Plant(CSP)Photovoltaic Plants(PV)Solar Energy• Sunlight is the most abundant energy source on the earth• On average, the earths surface receives about 1.2 x 1017 W of solar power• Most of the other renewable energy also depend on the sun as the primarysource
Wind Energy• Is The Conversion Of Wind Energy Into A Useful Form Of Energy, Such AsUsing Wind Turbines To Make Electricity, Wind Mills For MechanicalPower, Wind Pumps For Pumping Water.
Geothermal Energy• Natural heat extracted from the earths crust• In form of heat, which originates deep in the earths molten interior• Responsible for volcanoes and earthquakes
Biogas Energy• Utilization Of Organic Waste To Produce Energy• Chemical Energy Stored In Plants And Animals Or In The Animal Waste Is Called Bio-energy• Burning Of The Biomass Will Release The Energy In The Form Of Heat
• Capture the kinetic energy of falling water to generate electricity• Flowing or falling water rotates turbines and generators where kinetic energy isconverted to mechanical → electrical energyHydropowerThe Sarobi hydroelectric power plant, built in the 1950s.
Energy In AfghanistanTotalPopulationPopulationAccess to24 hrelectricitykabulPopulationPopulationaccessingelectricity Energy in Afghanistan is primarily provided by hydropower As of 2012, approximately 36% of the total Afghan population has access to24-hour electricity but in the capital Kabul the number is 70%. Afghanistan generates around 600 megawatts (MW) of electricitymainly from hydropower followed by a fossil fuel and solar.
Electricity Import• The Construction Of A 442-kilometre (275 Mi.) High Voltage Transmission Line FromUzbekistan To Afghanistan Was Completed By October 2008• It Is Expected The Project Will Cost $198 Million [USD], And Will Have A Capacity Of220 Kw; The Transmission Lines Were Jointly Funded By India And The AsianDevelopment Bank• By 2011, Afghanistan Imported Nearly 300 Megawatts Of Electricity From Uzbekistan
Electricity Rate in KWs by Afghanis012345678910Home Business0-100101-300301-400401-600301-402
Afghanistan dams and reservoirs• Dams and reservoirs in Afghanistan are used for irrigation, water supply, hydro-electricpower generation or combination of these. The list of dams and reservoirs inAfghanistan are listed below.Darunta DamKajaki DamDahla DamNaghlu Dam
Darunta Dam• Its Power Station Contains Three Vertical Kaplan Turbines (6 Blade Propeller) With A RatedOutput Of 3.85 MW Each. Originally, The Dam Supplied 40 To 45 Megawatts Of ElectricalPower But Silting And Damage To The System During The Afghan Civil War Was Has ReducedIts Actual Output To 11.5 Megawatts.Kajakai Dam• Water discharging from the dam traverses some 300 miles (500 km) of downstreamirrigation canals feeding farmland. It currently produces 33 megawatts of electricity.Dahla Dam• The Dahla Dam is the largest dam in Kandahar Province, and the second largest inAfghanistan. The dam is 34 kilometers north of Kandahar City and is operated by theHelmand and Arghandab Valley Authority.
Naghlu Dam• It Is Currently Being Rehabilitated And Only Three Of The Four Generators AreOperational.The Dam Is 110 M (361 Ft) Tall, 280 M (919 Ft) Long And Its Reservoir Has AStorage Capacity Of 550,000,000 M3 (445,892 Acre·ft).
Coal• Afghanistan is reported to have coal reserves totaling 100-400 million tons. these mines line locatedfrom badakhan up to heart province.• Afghanistan have more than 11 coal reserves such asBamyan provinceAshposhta and Sarasia coal reservers 150 milion tonSarjungel and Sar Asia coal reserversBaghlan provinceKarkar coal reservesDodkash coal reservesSamangan provinceDara e sof-Shabashak the first quality coal reserves 74 milion tonDarae e sof- Golabadri -keshinemabayenvallag and balkhab distract coal reservesBadakhshan provinceKotal khaki - Barf distract coal reservesParwan provinceFarakortGorbandprovine and GawoparanSurkhparsa distract coal reservesHerat provinceKarukh coal reserves 15 milon ton. the 10 milion ton for industriesDaikundi provinceLagharjoe - kacharan Distract coal reservesUruzgan provinceKandalanvalagMudakhil Distract coal reserves
Natural gas and oil Natural gas was Afghanistans only economically significant export in 1995,going mainly to Uzbekistan via pipeline de marde. Natural gas reserves were once estimated at 140 billion cubic meters Anew gas field was discovered in Chekhcha, Jowzjan Province. Natural gas was also producedat Sheberghan and Sar-e Pol. As of 2002, other operational gas fields were located at Djarquduk, KhowajaGogerdak, andYatimtaq,
54565860626466687072Gas Petrol DieselSummerFallWinterGasol i ne And Gas E ach Li ter By Afghani s
0500010000150002000025000300003500040000Archa OakWinterFallSummerHeating Expenses (Wood) Per Ton
Geothermal Energy In Afghanistan An area of vast untapped potential lies in the heat energy locked inside theearth in the form of magma or dry, hot rocks. The technology currently exists to provide low-cost electricity fromAfghanistan’s geothermal resources, which are located in the main axis areas ofthe Hindu Kush.
Wind Energy At least one wind farm was successfully completed in Panjshir Province in2008, which has the potential to produce 100 kw of energy. They have identified approximately 158,000 megawatts of untapped potentialwind energy Installing wind turbine farms in Herat could provide electricity to much ofwestern Afghanistan.
Hydroelectricity Hydroelectric plants were built between the 1950s and the mid 1970s, whichincluded the Sarbobi hydroelectric power plant in Kabul Province The Naghlu in the eastern Nangarhar Province, the Kajaki in HelmandProvince and a number of others. Also in operation was the Breshna-Kot Dam in Nangarhar, which had agenerating capacity of 11.5 MW.
Solar Energy In Afghanistan In 1991, a new 72-collector solar installation was completed in Kabul at a costof $364 million. The installation heated 40,000 liters of water to an averagetemperature of 60°C around the clock. The use of solar power is becoming wide spread in Afghanistan. Solar oweredstreet lights are seen in several Afghan cities and towns, including the capitalKabul
Minimize energy useUse energy efficientlyMinimize energy lossHow To Conserve EnergyBy Observing And Implementing The Following Four Tips You Can MinimizedThe Energy Use In You Homes And Daily LivesGet Everyone Involvedeffective awarenesss about how to conserve energy should be broadcasted andprovided to public via TV ads, publishes, internet and educational institutions inorder to increase their awareness about the issue.The Government must design and implement an electricity consumption systemthat can be applicable for electrical devices within homes of offices, energy star inUS.
• Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Part of an effective conservation program• Identify those areas that use the most energy• Make a plan, set some goals• Involve the whole family• Choose energy-efficient home appliances, which have been designed with energyconservation in mind.• Choose natural gas furnaces, water heaters, stoves, and clothes dryers. Natural gas issignificantly more efficient than electricity derived from fossil fuel sources, for heatingpurposes.• An efficient way to use electricity for heating is with a heat pump.• Try to use natural ventilation and only use your heater when temperatures drop below20°C(68°F), and try to only use cooling devices when temperatures get above26°C(78°F).How To Conserve Energy
Get Everyone Involved• Increase everyones understanding of the benefits of energyefficiency• Make the link between actions and behavior by individuals andpotential savings• Motivate users to modify behavior• Share the goal of reducing energy consumption and saving money
What Should Be Done1_ Engineering Latest Standards For Newly Designedand constructed structures should be takenIn account in Afghanistan in case of energy conservation like R-200R-200• A b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r d b a s e d m a i n l y o n e n e r g yt a r g e t s• S u p e r i o r c o n s t r u c t i o n m e t h o d s i n c l u d i n g l o t s o fi n s u l a t i o n , h i g h q u a l i t y w i n d o w s a n dd o o r s , e l i m i n a t i o n o f l e a k s a n d d r a f t s• T a k e a d v a n t a g e o f p a s s i v e s o l a r a n d h i g he f f i c i e n c y h e a t , c o o l i n g a n d a i r e x c h a n g e
• 2_Gas pipelines and usage system should be designed andimplemented in houses• That eases the cocking and heating purposes.• Bangladesh, powered by its economic growth, has decided tojoin the $7.5 billion Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India(TAPI) gas pipeline project, which enjoys the backing of theUnited States and the Asian Development Bank (ADB).• Which passes through Herat Kandahar Quetta Multan and runsalongside Herat-Kandahar Highway with the Length of 1,735 km(1,078 mi) and maximum discharge of 27 billion cubic meters peryear2_Gas pipelines
Strengthening Local Electricity Voltages• Strengthening the local electricity voltages can provide the groundfor families and homes• To use electricity for heating and cocking instead of wood and coalthat can generate environmental pollution which has seriousaftermaths for humans health in a region.• Electricity in Afghanistan is 220 Volts• The latest electricity voltages can reach up to 600 Volts
Exceeding Number OF Machinery In Capital• With 3,289,000 population kabul city is estimated to be the homefor 1224000 vehicles as of 2010 which 49% is passengers cars, 10%trucks 15.5 motorcycles 10% buses.• 4025 km roads have been built in kabul city as the roads of kabulcity was considered to be originally designed to 25000 to 3500 carsper day.• IRIN (United Nation Integrated Regional Information Network)reports that every month app 8000 cars are registered with kabultraffic department.
ENERGY STAR ® for New HomesThe ENERGY STAR For New Homes Initiative Promotes EnergyEfficiency Guidelines That Enable New Homes To BeApproximately 30 Percent More Energy Efficient Than Those BuiltTo Minimum Provincial Building Codes.This Initiative Is Currently Available In Ontario AndSaskatchewan And Is Managed For Natural Resources Canada ByRegional Service Organizations.