Types Of ComputerPrepared By: Engr. Ahmad Sameer NawabKardan University
Classification Of Computers Computers are classified and categorized into three sort of categoriesaccording to their specific number of functionalities. By Type By Size By Function
Types Of Computer Computer by size has been divided into three sub-categories which they havevarious number of functionalities corresponded to them. Hybrid Computers Analogue Computers Digital Computers
Analogue Computer Type Analogue types of Computer uses what is known as analogue signals that arerepresented by a continuous set of varying voltages and are used in scientificresearch centers For example hospitals and flight centers With analogue types of computer no values are represented by physicalmeasurable quantities For example voltages. Analogue computer types program arithmetic and logical operations by measuringphysical changes for example temperatures or pressure.A 1960 New mark analogue computer, made upof five units. This computer was used to solvedifferential equations and is currently housed atthe Cambridge Museum of Technology.The name "Dornier" is normally linked withadvanced aircraft design.www.analoguemuseum.org
Digital Computer type With these types of computers operation are on electrical input that can attaintwo inputs, states of ON=1 and state of OFF = 0. With digital type of computersdata is represented by digital of 0 and 1 or off state and on state. Digitalcomputer type recognizes data by counting discrete signal of (0 0r 1), they arehigh speed programmable. they compute values and stores results.
Hybrid type of Computer Hybrid computer types are very unique, in the sense that they combined bothanalogue and digital features and operations. With Hybrid computers operate by using digital to analogue convertor andanalogue to digital convertor. By linking the two types of computer above you come up with this newcomputer type called Hybrid.
Hybrid Computer, System hybrid computers should be distinguished from hybrid systems. The latter maybe no more than a digital computer equipped with an analog-to-digital converterat the input and/or a digital-to-analog converter at the output, to convert analogsignals for ordinary digital signal processing, and conversely, e.g., for drivingphysical control systems, such as servomechanisms. A servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device thatuses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the performance of amechanism. The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position, speed or other parameters.For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, asthere is no automatic feedback that controls position—the operator does this byobservation. By contrast the cars cruise control uses closed loop feedback, whichclassifies it as a servomechanism.
Computers By Size Computer has been categorized into Four other types according to it’s size. Microcomputers (Personal computers) Minicomputers (Midrange computers) Mainframe computers Supercomputer These four types are sub-parts of Digital Computers
Microcomputers Microcomputers are the most common type of computers used by people today, whether in aworkplace, at school or on the desk at home. The term ―microcomputer‖ was introduced withthe advent of single chip microprocessors. The term "microcomputer" itself is now practically an anachronism. Desktop Computers In-car computers (―carputers‖) – Built into a car, for entertainment, navigation, etc. Game consoles – Fixed computers specialized for entertainment purposes (video games). A separate class is that of mobile devices: Laptops, notebook computers and Palmtop computers – Portable and all in one case. Varying sizes, but other than smart books expected to be ―full‖ computers without limitations. Tablet computer – Like laptops, but with a touch-screen, sometimes entirely replacing thephysical keyboard. Smartphones, smart books and PDAs (personal digital assistants) – Small handheld computerswith limited hardware. Programmable calculator– Like small handhelds, but specialized on mathematical work. Handheld game consoles – The same as game consoles, but small and portable.
Minicomputers A minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a class of multi-user computers thatlies in the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the smallestmulti-user systems (mainframe computers) and the largest single-user systems(microcomputers or personal computers). The contemporary term for this class of system is midrange computer, such asthe higher-end SPARC, POWER and Itanium -based systems from OracleCorporation, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. E.g.- Laboratory computers
Mainframe computers The term mainframe computer was created to distinguish thetraditional, large, institutional computer intended to service multipleusers from the smaller, single user machines. These computers arecapable of handling and processing very large amounts of dataquickly. Mainframe computers are used in large institutions such asgovernment, banks and large corporations. They are measured inMIPS (million instructions per second) and respond to up to 100s ofmillions of users at a time.
Supercomputer A supercomputer is focused on performing tasks involving intensenumerical calculations such as weather forecasting, fluid dynamics,nuclear simulations, theoretical astrophysics, and complex scientificcomputations. A supercomputer is a computer that is at the frontlineof current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. Theterm supercomputer itself is rather fluid, and the speed of todayssupercomputers tends to become typical of tomorrows ordinarycomputer. Supercomputer processing speeds are measured in floatingpoint operations per second or FLOPS. An example of a floating point operation is the calculation ofmathematical equations in real numbers. In terms of computationalcapability, memory size and speed, I/O technology, and topologicalissues such as bandwidth and latency, supercomputers are the mostpowerful, are very expensive, and not cost-effective just to performbatch or transaction processing. Transaction processing is handled byless powerful computers such as server computers or mainframes.The Blue Gene/P supercomputer at Argonne NationalLab runs over 250,000 processors using normal datacenter air conditioning, grouped in 72 racks/cabinetsconnected by a high-speed optical network
Computer By Function Computer are four types according to their functionalities. Servers Workstations Information Appliances Embedded Computers
Servers Server usually refers to a computer that is dedicated to provide a service. Forexample, a computer dedicated to a database may be called a "databaseserver―. "File servers" manage a large collection of computer files. "Web servers"process web pages and web applications. Many smaller servers are actually personal computers that have beendedicated to provide services for other computers.
Workstations Workstations are computers that are intended to serve one user and maycontain special hardware enhancements not found on a personal computer.
Information appliances Information appliances are computers specially designed to perform a specificuser-friendly function —such as playing music, photography, or editing text. The term is most commonly applied to mobile devices, though there are alsoportable and desktop devices of this class.
Embedded computers Embedded computers are computers that are a part of a machine or device.Embedded computers generally execute a program that is stored in non-volatilememory and is only intended to operate a specific machine or device. Embedded computers are very common. Embedded computers are typically required to operate continuously withoutbeing reset or rebooted, and once employed in their task the software usuallycannot be modified. An automobile may contain a number of embeddedcomputers; however, a washing machine and a DVD player would contain onlyone. The central processing units (CPUs) used in embedded computers are oftensufficient only for the computational requirements of the specific applicationand may be slower and cheaper than CPUs found in a personal computer.