Samantha Urban's Senior Project Research Paper


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Samantha Urban's Senior Project Research Paper

  1. 1. Urban 1Sammi UrbanMrs. CorbettPeriod 7 AP Lit/Comp11/17/11 Advancement of Dentistry Development in the field of dental hygiene has greatly improved and evolution ofthe dental profession has conquered new heights since the 18th century. The ADA definesdentistry as “the evaluation, diagnosis, prevention and/or treatment (nonsurgical, surgicalor related procedures) of disease, disorders and/or conditions of the oral cavity,maxillofacial area and/or the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on thehuman body” (“ADA Definition of Dentistry”). In the world of dentistry today there havebeen many innovations with advancements in ethnic diversities, inventions, dental health,and oral disorders and diseases. The dental industry has broadened their acceptance for females in the work place.Before the 1860’s there were not any liscenced female dentists, but today, according tothe ADA Survey Center, 83% of dentists are males and 17% are female in the UnitedStates. “In time, she came to be known by what sounded like a translated NativeAmerican name – ‘the woman who pulls teeth’” (Roberts). Lucy Hobbs Taylor alsoknown as “the woman who pulls teeth,” was the first liscenced female dentist, and sheearned her degree in 1866. Dr. Taylor paved the way for advances in the equality forwoman and made it possible for woman to establish a successful dental practice. “At thistime Gray became the first Black woman in America to earn a Doctor of Dental SurgeryDegree. She returned to Cincinnati where she established a very successful private
  2. 2. Urban 2practice” (“Ida Gray Nelson”). In 1890, Gray was the first Black African American tobecome a dentist, and even a woman. This was a great achievement by both the AfricanAmerican and female community alike. “As the 2000 census demonstrates, the U.S. isbecoming increasingly ethnically and racially diverse. Over time the U.S. has bothsuccessfully and unsuccessfully navigated excepting the differing cultures, religions,ethnicities, and values within its society” (“Cultural Competency Curricular”). Achievingethnic and racial diversities is a very important advancement compared the modern 19thcentury and earlier societies. With the conforming society brings about more ideas andgreat minds working together to create a much more advanced dental network. This vastrange of ethnicities and people brings about great minds thinking together to create newinventions for the future. New inventions have evolved and advanced dentistry into a new era. One newinvention of the 20th century is teeth whitening systems, which help cover up stains andprovide a brighter healthier looking smile. “Dentists are advising to stay away from allthose things that spoil our white teeth. ‘Dentists’ call them chromogenic agents, and theyinclude medications (especially tetracycline), coffee, tea, tobacco (smoking or chewing)and red wine” (Marples). There are at home whitening systems such as crest white strips,but whitening can also be done professionally at the dentist office and have theBriteSmile Professionally Teeth Whitening treatment which provides a brighter longerlasting whitening treatment. Another cosmetic dental invention includes braces; “in 1997,Chishti and Wirth applied 3-D computer imaging graphics to the field of orthodontics andcreated Align Technologies and the Invisalining method” (Der Zahnbrecher von GerardHonthorst). Before the 1990’s braces were metal brackets that were glued onto one’s
  3. 3. Urban 3teeth, and even though that method is still used today, Invisaline is much more desirable.After its name, Invisaline is just a clear plastic container that fits over the teeth and ishardly noticed making a great invention for a smoother transition into a straighter smile.“Ultrasonic dental cleaning is now being used to remove dental tartar faster and morethoroughly, without the uncomfortable scraping associated with a deep cleaning” (Lynn).This new instrument called the Cavitron makes for a much more conferrable andeffective cleaning; it flushes away dental plaque and tartar built up around the gum line.The Cavitron is very beneficial to both dentists as well as patients, giving the patient theincentive to be more willing to getting their teeth cleaned. “In 1896 American dentistCharles Edmund Kells introduced X-ray technology in dentistry and thereby ushered inan era of accurate diagnosis of dental ailments” (“dentistry”). X-rays in dentistry providefor a more accurate and deeper looking into the teeth to diagnose and treat a wider varietyof conditions such as: hidden tooth decay; tooth abscess, cyst or tumor, extra teeth, aswell as conditions of dental fillings, tooth crowns, dental bridges and root canals. X-raysare probably one of the most vital and important inventions to date in dentistry; prettymuch every time a patient goes in for a check up they need one. This shows the greatadvancements that the X-ray provides for the dentist to make more accurate decisions.With the help of all these inventions advancements in dental hygiene have also beenmade. Much advancement has been made in the respects of maintaining happy, healthylooking teeth. “Taking good care of one’s teeth is one of the smartest investments aperson can make in their health, helping to ensure that the teeth will remain strong,healthy, and white for a life time (“UXL Complete Health Resource” p.43). Up until the
  4. 4. Urban 420th century there was little attention put on patients to maintaining a healthy orallifestyle. Today, dentists have perfected the techniques in how to keep cleanly smile anddental health; dentists recommend brushing at least two times a day and flossingeveryday. By doing this, it will keep not only the visual aspects of the teeth and mouthlooking healthy, but as well as preventing the body from getting infected from bacteriaentering through the mouth, cavities, and tooth decay. “Following years of research,McKay and others were able to show that ‘total absence of decay’ was due to thepresence in the drinking water of high amounts of naturally occurring fluoride, whichprotects the teeth for decay” (“dentistry”). Based on the research on the benefits offluoride, dentists have made advancements in the attempt of preventing tooth decay.Since dentists started using fluoridation, fluoride treatments, on patients, dental cavitiesin children have decreased by more than 50 percent. Although, even with pristine dentalhealth there are some dental problems that can be prevented, and in other cases cannot beprevented. There are many different types of diseases and disorders that can form in themouth. One very common disorder is Enamel Hypoplasia, and there are different typesof treatment options, but it depends on the severity of the particular tooth and thesymptoms allied with it. One of the most traditional treatments is bonding a tooth coloredmaterial to the tooth which protects it from further wear and sensitivity” (“EnamelHypoplasia: Causes”). Enamel Hypoplasia is a condition that discolors the tooth as wellas thins the enamel on the tooth causing it to become very sensitive and break down.Dentists have made advancements in creating toothpastes to help with this condition thathelp rebuild and conserve enamel on the tooth, as well as whitening procedures to help
  5. 5. Urban 5reduce the visible aspects of discoloration caused by Enamel Hypoplasia. Anothercommon disease that dentists see is Gingivitis. “Gingivitis is a form of periodontaldisease. Periodontal disease involves inflammation and infection that destroys the tissuesthat support the teeth, including the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the toothsockets (alveolar bone)” (Rosenberg and Zieve). This disease is caused by poor dentalhygiene, and dentists have made much advancement in preventing this disease byeducating patients on how to better take care of their teeth. In earlier years, teeth wouldrot away from poor dental hygiene, but with improvements in knowledge as well astechnological innovations about Gingivitis, it is now possible as well as simple to curethis disease. With the discovery of fluoride treatments helping prevent tooth decay,gingivitis is much less common as well as many other oral diseases such as cavities.There is no way to “cure” a cavity, but to suppress the painful irritations caused by them,fillings are required. Research has advanced the cavity filling techniques and has madethe process of filling a cavity much less painful and time consuming. Dental amalgam isone of the newest and most commonly used filling technique and it is a “self-hardeningmixture of silver-tin-copper alloy power and liquid mercury. It is often used as a fillingmaterial and replacement for broken teeth (“Dental Fillings”). With advancements infilling techniques the cavities hold on better to the teeth as well as don’t break down andlast longer. Cavities are a big problem, but with the help of dentists educating patientsmore, it is helping to prevent from peopling developing this disease. The practice of dentistry has existed from thousands of years. It has evolved into avery technologically advanced career. New discoveries such as fluoride treatment,whitening, fillings, x-rays, common dental hygiene, as well as advancement in the field
  6. 6. Urban 6of broadening the ethnical acceptance into the practice. Within the last 150 years is wherethe most activity regarding inventions and research has taken place in the United States.The development of the scientific foundation has evolved in the latter part of the 19thcentury driven by experiments to discover and invent new techniques as well asinventions. The 20th and 21st century is known as the empirical scientific evolution ofAmerica’s dental advancements. The most common advancements include acceptance inethnic diversities starting in the 19th century. Inventions to assist in improving dentalhealth as well as to cure oral disorders and diseases.
  7. 7. Urban 7 Work Cited“ADA Definition of Dentistry.” American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. American Dental Association House of Delegates, 2 June 2003. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < ADA%20Definition%20of%20OMS%20and%20Dentisry.pdf>.“Cultural Competency Curricular Guidelines For Medical and/or Dental Schools.” ADDM. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < CulturalCompCurriculum.pdf>.“Dental Fillings.” Mama’s Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <>.“dentistry.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2011.Web.17Oct.2011. <>.Der Zahnbrecher von Gerard Honthorst. “A Brief History of Braces.” Archwired. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <>.“Enamal Hypoplasia: Causes and Treatment Options.” N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <>.“The Gender Shift, the demographics of women in dentistry. What impact will it have?” In A Spirit of Caring. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <>.“Ida Gray Nelson, a First in Black Dentistry!” African American Registry. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < nelson-first-black-dentistry>.
  8. 8. Urban 8Lynn, Margot. “10 New Technologies That Are Changing Dentistry.” SooperArticles. N.p., 2 Feb. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < fitness-articles/dental-care-articles/10-new-technologies-changing-dentistry- 38691.html>.Marples, Gareth. “The History of Teeth Whitening – Smiles Through the Miles.” N.p., 11 Sept. 2008. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <>.Roberts, Tod. “Lucy Hobbs Taylor, First 1833-1910: A Lawrence Kansas Pioneer in the History of Women in Dentistry.” Watkins Community Museum. Douglas County Historical Society, 6 May 2009. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < ~thorsdag/LucyHobbsTaylor.html>.Rosenberg, Jack D, and David Zieve. “Gingivitis.” PubMed Health. N.p., 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. < PMH0002051/>.UXL Complete Health Resource. Ed. Caroline M. Levchuck, Allison McNeill, Rob Nagel, David Newton, Betz Des Chenes, Michele Drohan, et al. Vol. 3: Vol.1: U*X*L Complete Health Resource Healthy Living. Detroit: UXL, 2001. p31-56.