Samantha Lesyk                                                                           Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012Represe...
Samantha Lesyk                                                       Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012                 that no on...
Samantha Lesyk                                                                    Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012              ...
Samantha Lesyk                                       Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012                 held to decide whether the...
Samantha Lesyk                                                                         Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012         ...
Samantha Lesyk                                                                        Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012          ...
Samantha Lesyk                                                                        Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012          ...
Samantha Lesyk                                                         Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012                 with the...
Samantha Lesyk                                                                         Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012In Genera...
Samantha Lesyk                         Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012                 are provided with a common enemy        ...
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Representation vs Authority


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Representation vs Authority

  1. 1. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012Representation vs. AuthorityType of About Liberal Current MetaphorGovernment Principles Example(s)Direct - Operates on the belief that Accepted: - Switzerland Direct democracy isDemocracy every citizen’s voice is - Individual First Nations having important and necessary for rights and pow wows about the orderly and efficient freedoms situations or operation of society - Rule of law events. - Three important instruments of direct democracy are Rejected: initiatives, referendums or - Self-interest plebiscites, and recalls - Initiatives, in the US, can be used for citizens to create legislation. They begin with the forming of a petition by a group of citizens and if the petition is signed by a certain amount of people, it can force a public vote on an issue - Referendums or plebiscites, is when all citizens must vote on whether to accept or reject a proposed piece of legislation - Recall elections are when a majority of voters may choose to remove an elected official or government in power, which is usually initiated through petition - Every citizen votes directly in all decisions; only practical with small populationRepublican - A republic is a country where Accepted: - France RepublicanDemocracy the people are sovereign and - Rule of law - United States democracy is there is no king or queen - Individual of America Godzilla and King - Has three branches of rights and Kong fighting over government; legislative, freedoms dominant power. executive, and judicial - Economic - To ensure the government Freedom adheres to liberal principles, - Self-interest they use a system of checks Rejected: and balances to make sure
  2. 2. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 that no one branch of the - Competition government becomes too powerful - This system was established based on the beliefs that checks and balances would keep the government too weak to override the will of the people, and that the least intrusive government provides more freedom to its citizens - There are two chambers of the US Congress; the House of representatives and the Senate - New laws must be passed by both House of Representatives and senate, then be approved by president - The president can veto the bill and ultimately choose not to sign a bill, in which case the bill would be sent back to the house of Congress where it originated, so it may be revised - Presidential veto may be defeated by ⅔ majority vote in both Houses of Congress - The people go to the polls and vote for the presidential candidate of their choice by voting for electors pledged to body known as the Electoral College - The framers of the US Constitution were somewhat suspicious of the will of the people and did not want the people to directly elect the president - Established a process whereby each state and the District of Columbia select electors equal in number to their Congressional
  3. 3. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 representation, and the electors actually elect the president - Essentially has a two-party system, which has the advantage of stability, but the disadvantage that it is virtually impossible to challenge the established parties to consider minority opinions - Legislative branch=Congress (House of Representatives and Senate) - Number of representatives reflects state populations (435 total; 2 year term - Every state has 2 senators (100 total); 6 year terms (1/3 are elected every 2 years - Executive branch (all appointed by the president): president (every 4 year terms, max 2 terms) (head of state and commander and chief in military), vice president, secretary of state, cabinet - Judicial branch: courts and judges - Appointed cabinetParliamentary - Also known as responsible Accepted: - United ParliamentaryDemocracy government - Individual Kingdom democracy is a pig - A branch of government that rights and - Canada race with 10 pigs proposes laws, the executive freedoms racing for the finish branch of government, is - Rule of law line. Some are dependent on the direct or - Competition slower or less liked, indirect support of elected while others are members of the legislative Rejected: the power pigs that branch - Self-interest dominate the competition. - Responsible government is about the accountability - If suspected of not carrying out the will of the people, a motion of non-confidence may be proposed in the House of Commons, in which a vote is
  4. 4. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 held to decide whether the government must immediately resign or submit to a new general election or not - Operates on the basis of representation by population, in which a single representative is elected from divided electoral districts of about 100 000 people - Like most government systems, Canada has a bicameral legislature to provide two different legislative bodies, each based on a different form of representation - Senators are not elected; prime minister appoints new senators - Any piece of legislation passed by the House of Commons must also be passed by the Senate before it can become law - Usually, the Senate simply recommends alterations rather than rejects the bill - Government led by party with most representatives and the leader of the party becomes head of the government - Elected executive branch needs support of elected legislative branch - MP’s represent electorate - Governor general is a member of executive and legislative branches - represents Monarch - Legislative branch (house of commons and senators) create laws - Election= “first past-the-post” (single member constituency)
  5. 5. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 - Senators represent regions, not population -- also legislative branch - Judicial branch administers (interprets and enforces) law - courts and judges - Electoral parliament; appoint senateProportional - This system of government Accepted: - Venezuela ProportionalRepresentation has the citizens voting directly - Individual - South Africa representation is for a party, not candidate, and rights and - Israel when you can’t then representatives are freedoms - Austria choose between assigned based on the amount - Rule of law - Finland two chocolate bars, of popular support obtained - Competition so you end up (percentage of vote) getting a little bit of - Encourages and legitimizes Rejected: both. participation by minority or - Self-interest marginal parties who would not obtain representation in the systems used in Canada or the US - Is argued this system more directly reflects the popular vote and therefore better reflects the will of the people - Smaller parties are more successful - Often results in minority governments that require coalitions between parties - The will of the people is expressed in the selection of representatives to the government during elections - Periodic elections are held to ensure that those elected remain true to the will of the people - The presence of multiple parties representing various perspectives allows them the ability to watch one another with a critical eye, the separation of powers among different branches of
  6. 6. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 government, and independent media, an independent judiciary, and the rule of law - Entrenches the basic rights and freedoms of citizens and prevent abuse by those who wield power - Elected representatives make decisions on behalf of electorateMonarchy - Government power is held by Accepted: - Saudi Arabia Monarchy is God a monarch (king, emperor, - Self-interest holding power over sheik, tsar, etc.) and passes all the people. according to bloodiness Rejected: (sometimes monarchs are - Individual elected too) rights and - Monarch has total authority freedoms over government and civil - Rule of law matters - Economic freedom - Leadership is passed along - Private blood lines/through property generationsOligarchy - A form of government in Accepted: - Russian Oligarchy is the which political power rests - Self-interest Federation cool kids in a with a small elite segment of school of cliques. society, who are often Rejected: There are few of controlled by politically - Individual them and it is a powerful families who pass on rights and special privilege to their influence to their freedoms rule to school. children - Rule of law - The oligarchic elite imposes - Private property strict limits on what constitutes an acceptable and respectable political position, and politicians’ careers depend heavily on unelected economic and media elites - Political power is held by a small elite segment of society, often politically powerful families - The Russian Federation is considered an oligarchy because of the influence carried by members of the
  7. 7. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 former communist part - Some also theorize that all forms of government eventually become oligarchies (ex. USA)One-Party State - A type of system where only Accepted: - Italy A one-party state is one party forms the - Rule of law trying to pick a red government and no other marble out of a bag parties are permitted to run Rejected: of blue. candidates for election - Individual - Some appearances of rights and democracy exist, but the freedoms absence of choice and the - Competition barriers against change - Self-interest eliminate the liberal and democratic principle of the will of the people - They are often communist states - Others say it simply does not represent the will of the people - In some states, people may choose from a number of candidates, though all candidates represent the same party - Emphasize unity, strength, community through a single organization (party), rather than the divisiveness and conflict of multi-party democracy - With no dissenting voice (opposing parties) it is easier to ignore previously established laws or constitutions - Often described as a republic of the people’s will (people’s republic, socialist republic, democratic republic)Military - A form of government in Accepted: - Latin America MilitaryDictatorships which political power resides - Rule of law - Africa dictatorship is the - Middle East live version of the
  8. 8. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 with the military leadership Rejected: Saw movies. A man - Some justify military - Individual with the ability to dictatorships by saying they rights and take away your life are bringing political stability freedoms right before your to their countries or of - Self-interest eyes, but makes rescuing them from you participate in “dangerous ideologies” his sick, twisted - Military regimes tend to game, which is portray themselves as neutral your only way to survive. third parties who can provide interim leadership during times of turmoil - Will of the people is ignored or undermined short term, but apparently is better in the long run - Tend to be unwilling to give up power unless forced to do so - Military leadership holds political power - May be official (military declares their intent to govern) or unofficial (military exerts influence privately) - Generally established through coup d’état - Often justified as an attempt to stabilize national politics or rescue the nation from dangerous ideologies - Musharraf claimed the elected president was undermining Pakistan’s constitution - Pinochet took over Chile in order to prevent the elected president from creating an authoritarian socialist government - Military dictatorships are rarely considered legitimate by the international community and have become increasingly rare in the last 20 years
  9. 9. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012In GeneralDemocracy Similarities Authoritarianism- Tests human’s ability to make - Both have intentions - Generally labeled as unconcerned withwise judgments in matters of paying attention and the will of the people, but that is notconcerning themselves or others responding to the will necessarily true- Ordinary individual citizens are of the people, but go - They attempt to discern and respond tothe ones who shape how the about in different ways the will of the peoplegovernment works - Both have a leader - Claim order and security are more- Ideally, the governing system is over the government, important than freedomdesigned with the individual whether it be a prime - Father figure will make the decisionscitizen’s participation and minister, a president, in the interests of the people or a monarch - They have a detailed vision of ainviolability in mind - Both make use of the wonderful future, but their vision- Individual equality and worth, practice of propaganda requires sacrifice and hardship andthe rule of law, private property, to spread word and must therefore ignore the immediateand ruling through the consent boost their popularityof the governed will of the people- Elections are the essence of - Authoritarianism describes a form ofdemocracy; open, free and fair government that vests authority in an- “As citizens of this democracy, elite group that may or may not rule inyou are the rulers and the ruled, the interests of the peoplethe lawgivers and the law- - Many authoritarian governmentsabiding, the beginning and the believe they are serving the bestend.” – Adlai Stevenson interests of the country- In democracy, power is - Some scholars believeultimately vested in the people authoritarianism is an expression of collectivism, in opposition to individualism - Places governing authority with an elite that may or may not govern in the interests of the people - Vision: defined by leader as a national objective (security, prosperity, etc.) - Propaganda: population is controlled by controlling the information they receive - Controlled Participation: people believe they are contributing (attending rallies, spying on subversive citizens) and work to support government activities or stop anti- government efforts - Directing Public Discontent: people
  10. 10. Samantha Lesyk Humanities 30-1May 6, 2012 are provided with a common enemy (scapegoat) upon which they can focus their frustration or anger - Terror: may be quick, brutal, and violent (dissidents disappear)